Śramaṇa

  • buddhism and jainism are two of many indian philosophies considered as Śramaṇic traditions.
    a jain monk

    Śramaṇa (sanskrit: श्रमण; pali: samaṇa) means "one who labours, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose)"[1][2] or "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".[3] the term in early vedic literature is predominantly used as an epithet for the rishis with reference to shrama associated with the ritualistic exertion. the term in these texts doesn't express non-vedic connotations as it does in post-vedic buddhist and jain canonical texts.[4] during its later semantic development, the term came to refer to several non-brahmanical ascetic movements parallel to but separate from the vedic religion.[5][6][7] the śramaṇa tradition includes jainism,[8] buddhism,[9] and others such as the Ājīvikas, ajñanas and cārvākas.[10][11]

    the śramaṇa movements arose in the same circles of mendicants in ancient india that led to the development of yogic practices,[12] as well as the popular concepts in all major indian religions such as saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and death) and moksha (liberation from that cycle).[13][note 1]

    the Śramaṇic traditions have a diverse range of beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, wearing dress to complete nudity in daily social life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.[14]:57–77[15]:3–14

  • etymology and origin
  • history
  • philosophy
  • influences on indian culture
  • in western literature
  • in contemporary western culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references

Buddhism and Jainism are two of many Indian philosophies considered as Śramaṇic traditions.

Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "one who labours, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose)"[1][2] or "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".[3] The term in early Vedic literature is predominantly used as an epithet for the Rishis with reference to Shrama associated with the ritualistic exertion. The term in these texts doesn't express non-Vedic connotations as it does in post-Vedic Buddhist and Jain canonical texts.[4] During its later semantic development, the term came to refer to several non-Brahmanical ascetic movements parallel to but separate from the Vedic religion.[5][6][7] The śramaṇa tradition includes Jainism,[8] Buddhism,[9] and others such as the Ājīvikas, Ajñanas and Cārvākas.[10][11]

The śramaṇa movements arose in the same circles of mendicants in ancient India that led to the development of yogic practices,[12] as well as the popular concepts in all major Indian religions such as saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and death) and moksha (liberation from that cycle).[13][note 1]

The Śramaṇic traditions have a diverse range of beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, wearing dress to complete nudity in daily social life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.[14]:57–77[15]:3–14