Algerian War

  • algerian war
    الثورة الجزائرية
    tagrawla tadzayrit
    guerre d'algérie
    part of the cold war and the decolonisation of africa
    algerian war collage wikipedia.jpg
    collage of the french war in algeria
    date1 november 1954 – 19 march 1962
    (7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 4 days)
    location
    algeria
    result

    military stalemate[1][2][3][4]

    • fln political victory
    • Évian accords
    • algerian independence
    • end of the french colonial empire[5][6][7][8][9]
    • collapse of the fourth french republic and establishment of the fifth republic
    territorial
    changes
    independence of algeria
    belligerents
    • variant flag of the gpra (1958-1962).svg fln
    • variant flag of the gpra (1958-1962).svg mna
    • flag of algerian communist party.svg pca
     france
    • faf
      (1960–61)
    • oas
      (1961–62)

    supported by:
     spain

    commanders and leaders
    • mourad didouche 
    • mustapha benboulaïd 
    • larbi ben m'hidi executed
    • ali la pointe 
    • ahmed zabana executed
    • youcef zighoud 
    • benali boudghène 
    • bachir chihani [ar; fr] 
    • ali mallah [ar] 
    • colonel amirouche 
    • saadi yacef

    politicians:

    • abane ramdane 
    • ferhat abbas
    • houari boumedienne
    • hocine aït ahmed
    • ahmed ben bella
    • krim belkacem
    • frantz fanon
    • rabah bitat
    • mohamed boudiaf
    • ali kafi
    • ahmed tewfik el madani
    • ahmed francis
    • mohamed khider
    • benyoucef benkhedda
    • abdelhamid mehri
    • mohamed lamine debaghine
    • saad dahlab
    • mohammed seddik benyahia
    • amar ouamrane [ar; de; fa; fr]
    • lakhdar ben tobbal
    • abdelhafid boussouf
    • saïd mohammedi
    • ibrahim mazhoudi
    • alphonse djamate (1955–62)
    • paul cherrière (1954–55)
    • henri lorillot (1955–56)
    • raoul salan (1956–58)
    • jacques massu (1956–60)
    • paul aussaresses
    • maurice challe (1958–60)
    • jean crepin (1960–61)
    • fernand gambiez (1961)
    • said boualam
    • pierre lagaillarde
    • raoul salan
    • edmond jouhaud
    • jean-jacques susini
    strength
    300,000 identified 40,000 civilian support
    • 470,000 (maximum reached and maintained from 1956 to 1962)[1]:17
    • 1.5 million total mobilized[10]
    • more than 90,000 harkis
    3,000 (oas)
    casualties and losses
    140,000[11] to 152,863 fln soldiers[12][13] including 12,000 internal purges[14] (4,300 algerian from the fln and mna killed in metropolitan france)
    • 25,600 french soldiers dead
    • 65,000 wounded[15]
    • 50,000 harkis (pro-france forces) killed or missing[16]

    [17]

    • 6,000 european civilian deaths
    • 100 dead (oas)
    • 2,000 jailed (oas)
    • 250,000–300,000 (including 55,000[18] to 250,000[19][20] civilians) algerian casualties
    • 1 million europeans fled[21]
    • 2,000,000 algerians resettled or displaced[22][1]:13
    part of a series on the
    algeria
    emblem of algeria.svg

    the algerian war, also known as the algerian war of independence or the algerian revolution (arabic: الثورة الجزائريةal-thawra al-jazaa'iriyya; berber languages: tagrawla tadzayrit; french: guerre d'algérie or révolution algérienne) was fought between france and the algerian national liberation front (french: front de libération nationale – fln) from 1954 to 1962, which led to algeria winning its independence from france. an important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. the conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities.[23] the war took place mainly on the territory of algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan france.

    effectively started by members of the national liberation front (fln) on 1 november 1954, during the toussaint rouge ("red all saints' day"), the conflict led to serious political crises in france, causing the fall of the fourth french republic (1946–58) replaced by the fifth republic with a strengthened presidency. the brutality of the methods employed by the french forces failed to win hearts and minds in algeria, alienated support in metropolitan france and discredited french prestige abroad.[24][25] as the war dragged on, the french public slowly turned against it[26] and many of france's key allies, including the united states, switched from supporting france to abstaining in the un debate on algeria.[27]

    after major demonstrations in algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960)[28][29] and a united nations resolution recognizing the right to independence,[30] charles de gaulle, the first president of the fifth republic, decided to open a series of negotiations with the fln. these concluded with the signing of the Évian accords in march 1962. a referendum took place on 8 april 1962 and the french electorate approved the Évian accords. the final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement[31] and on 1 july, the accords were subject to a second referendum in algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against.[32]

    the planned french withdrawal led to a state crisis. this included various assassination attempts on de gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. most of the former were carried out by the organisation armée secrète (oas), an underground organization formed mainly from french military personnel supporting a french algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence.

    upon independence in 1962, 900,000 european-algerians (pieds-noirs) fled to france within a few months in fear of the fln's revenge. the french government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in france. the majority of algerian muslims who had worked for the french were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between french and algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them.[33] however, the harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the french army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the fln or by lynch-mobs, often after being abducted and tortured.[14]:537[34] about 90,000 managed to flee to france,[35] some with help from their french officers acting against orders, and as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the algerian-french population.

  • background: french algeria
  • war chronology
  • strategy of internationalisation of the algerian war led by the fln
  • pieds-noirs' and harkis' exodus
  • death toll
  • lasting effects in algerian politics
  • torture
  • french school
  • historiography
  • films
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Algerian War
الثورة الجزائرية
Tagrawla Tadzayrit
Guerre d'Algérie
Part of the Cold War and the decolonisation of Africa
Algerian war collage wikipedia.jpg
Collage of the French war in Algeria
Date1 November 1954 – 19 March 1962
(7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 4 days)
Location
Result

Military stalemate[1][2][3][4]

Territorial
changes
Independence of Algeria
Belligerents
 France
  • FAF
    (1960–61)
  • OAS
    (1961–62)

Supported by:
 Spain

Commanders and leaders
Strength
300,000 identified 40,000 civilian support
  • 470,000 (maximum reached and maintained from 1956 to 1962)[1]:17
  • 1.5 million total mobilized[10]
  • more than 90,000 Harkis
3,000 (OAS)
Casualties and losses
140,000[11] to 152,863 FLN soldiers[12][13] including 12,000 internal purges[14] (4,300 Algerian from the FLN and MNA killed in metropolitan France)
  • 25,600 French soldiers dead
  • 65,000 wounded[15]
  • 50,000 harkis (pro-France forces) killed or missing[16]

[17]

  • 6,000 European civilian deaths
  • 100 dead (OAS)
  • 2,000 jailed (OAS)
  • 250,000–300,000 (including 55,000[18] to 250,000[19][20] civilians) Algerian casualties
  • 1 million Europeans fled[21]
  • 2,000,000 Algerians resettled or displaced[22][1]:13
Part of a series on the
Algeria
Emblem of Algeria.svg

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الجزائريةAl-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; Berber languages: Tagrawla Tadzayrit; French: Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities.[23] The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

Effectively started by members of the National Liberation Front (FLN) on 1 November 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge ("Red All Saints' Day"), the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic (1946–58) replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency. The brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad.[24][25] As the war dragged on, the French public slowly turned against it[26] and many of France's key allies, including the United States, switched from supporting France to abstaining in the UN debate on Algeria.[27]

After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960)[28][29] and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence,[30] Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the Fifth Republic, decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN. These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords. The final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement[31] and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against.[32]

The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis. This included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète (OAS), an underground organization formed mainly from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence.

Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians (Pieds-noirs) fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge. The French government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France. The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them.[33] However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs, often after being abducted and tortured.[14]:537[34] About 90,000 managed to flee to France,[35] some with help from their French officers acting against orders, and as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population.