Anti-Europeanism

Anti-Europeanism and Europhobia are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to Europe.

In the context of racial or ethno-nationalist politics, this may refer to the culture or peoples of Europe (c.f. anti-white sentiment in the United States); In the shorthand of "Europe" standing for the European Union or European integration, it may refer to Euroscepticism, criticism of policies of European governments or the European Union.[1] In the context of United States foreign policy, it may refer to the geopolitical divide between "transatlantic", "transpacific" and "hemispheric" (pan-American) relations.The nominal antonyms would be pro-Europeanism or Europhilia.[clarification needed]

"Europhobia" is used of British attitudes towards the Continent, either in the context of anti-German sentiment or of anti-Catholicism,[2]or, more recently, of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom.[3]

American exceptionalism in the United States[4] has long led to criticism of European domestic policy (such as the size of the welfare state in European countries)[5] and foreign policy (such as European countries that did not support the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq).[6] The ideological split between reverence for European refinery and classics and an emerging anti-French and anti-European sentiment played already a role between John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and their fellow Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans urging closer ties.[citation needed]