Anti-Japanese sentiment

Anti-Japanese sentiment (also called Japanophobia, Nipponophobia[1] and anti-Japanism) involves the hatred or fear of anything Japanese. Its opposite is Japanophilia.

Overview

Results of 2017 BBC World Service poll[2]
Views of Japan's influence by country
(sorted by pos − neg)
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos − Neg
 China
22%
75%
3 -53
 Spain
39%
36%
25 3
 Turkey
50%
32%
18 18
 Pakistan
38%
20%
42 18
 India
45%
17%
38 28
 Russia
45%
16%
39 29
 Peru
56%
25%
19 31
 Nigeria
57%
24%
19 33
 United Kingdom
65%
30%
5 35
 Mexico
59%
23%
18 36
 Kenya
58%
22%
20 36
 Germany
50%
13%
37 37
 Indonesia
57%
17%
26 40
 United States
65%
23%
12 42
 France
74%
21%
5 53
 Brazil
70%
15%
15 55
 Australia
78%
17%
5 61
 Canada
77%
12%
11 65
Results of 2013 Pew Research Center poll[3]
Asia/Pacific views of Japan by country
(sorted by fav − unfav)
Country polled Favorable Unfavorable Neutral Fav − Unfav
 China
4%
90%
6% -86%
 South Korea
22%
77%
1% -55%
 Pakistan
51%
7%
42% 44%
 Philippines
78%
18%
4% 60%
 Australia
78%
16%
6% 62%
 Indonesia
79%
12%
9% 67%
 Malaysia
80%
6%
14% 74%

Anti-Japanese sentiments range from animosity towards the Japanese government's actions and disdain for Japanese culture to racism against the Japanese people. Sentiments of dehumanization have been fueled by the anti-Japanese propaganda of the Allied governments in World War II; this propaganda was often of a racially disparaging character. Anti-Japanese sentiment may be strongest in China, North Korea, and South Korea,[4][5][6][7] due to atrocities committed by the Japanese military.[8]

In the past, anti-Japanese sentiment contained innuendos of Japanese people as barbaric. Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Japan was intent to adopt Western ways in an attempt to join the West as an industrialized imperial power, but a lack of acceptance of the Japanese in the West complicated integration and assimilation. One commonly held view was that the Japanese were evolutionarily inferior (Navarro 2000, "... a date which will live in infamy"). Japanese culture was viewed with suspicion and even disdain.

While passions have settled somewhat since Japan's surrender in World War II, tempers continue to flare on occasion over the widespread perception that the Japanese government has made insufficient penance for their past atrocities, or has sought to whitewash the history of these events.[9] Today, though the Japanese government has effected some compensatory measures, anti-Japanese sentiment continues based on historical and nationalist animosities linked to Imperial Japanese military aggression and atrocities. Japan's delay in clearing more than 700,000 (according to the Japanese Government[10]) pieces of life-threatening and environment contaminating chemical weapons buried in China at the end of World War II is another cause of anti-Japanese sentiment.

Periodically, individuals within Japan spur external criticism. Former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi was heavily criticized by South Korea and China for annually paying his respects to the war dead at Yasukuni Shrine, which enshrines all those who fought and died for Japan during World War II, including 1,068 convicted war criminals. Right-wing nationalist groups have produced history textbooks whitewashing Japanese atrocities,[11] and the recurring controversies over these books occasionally attract hostile foreign attention.

Some anti-Japanese sentiment originates from business practices used by some Japanese companies, such as dumping.