Anti-Russian sentiment

The Chimera of the Mysterious Russian Soul, by Lena Hades, depicting common stereotypes of foreigners about Russians[1]
"Exposed to the world's contempt". Illustration from the "Puck" satirical magazine, dedicated to the anti-Jewish pogrom in Kishenev (April 1903), June 17, 1903

Anti-Russian sentiment (or Russophobia) is a fear and/or dislike for Russia, Russians and/or Russian culture.[2] A variety of mass culture clichés about Russia and Russians exist. Many of these stereotypes were originally developed in the Western world during the Cold War,[3][4] and were primarily used as elements of political war against the Soviet Union. Some of these prejudices are still observed in the discussions of the relations with Russia.[5] Negative representation of Russia and Russians in modern popular culture is also often described as functional, as stereotypes about Russia may be used for framing reality, like creating an image of an enemy, or an excuse, or an explanation for compensatory reasons.[6][7][8][9] Hollywood has been sometimes criticised for its excessive and continuous use of Russians as the villains.[10][11][12][13]

On the other hand, Russian nationalists and apologists of Russian politics are sometimes criticised for using allegations of "Russophobia" as a form of propaganda to counter criticism of Russia.[14][15]

Statistics

Results of 2019 YouGov poll.
Views of Russia's influence by country[16]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 Denmark
8%
74%
17 -66
 United Kingdom
8%
73%
19 -65
 Poland
13%
76%
12 -63
 Sweden
12%
70%
18 -58
 United States
12%
69%
20 -57
 Spain
17%
64%
19 -47
 Japan
14%
57%
29 -43
 Canada
19%
61%
19 -42
 Australia
21%
62%
17 -41
 Germany
20%
59%
20 -39
 France
27%
52%
21 -25
 Italy
35%
43%
22 -8
 Brazil
41%
48%
11 -7
 Saudi Arabia
34%
36%
30 -2
 South Africa
46%
38%
16 +8
 Turkey
50%
37%
13 +13
 Egypt
50%
27%
23 +23
 Thailand
47%
23%
30 +24
 Mexico
62%
27%
12 +35
 Indonesia
58%
18%
24 +40
 Nigeria
68%
26%
6 +42
 India
70%
14%
16 +56
 China
71%
15%
13 +56
Results of 2018 Pew Research Center poll.
Views of Russia's influence by country[17]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 Netherlands
15%
79%
5 -64
 Sweden
17%
79%
4 -62
 Poland
22%
69%
8 -47
 United Kingdom
22%
67%
11 -45
 United States
21%
64%
15 -43
 Spain
24%
66%
10 -42
 Japan
26%
68%
6 -42
 France
30%
66%
4 -36
 Australia
29%
63%
8 -34
 Canada
27%
60%
12 -33
 Israel
34%
64%
2 -30
 Germany
35%
59%
6 -24
 Hungary
38%
54%
9 -16
 Italy
37%
49%
14 -12
 South Africa
34%
44%
22 -10
 Brazil
35%
43%
23 -8
 Mexico
37%
29%
33 +8
 Greece
52%
43%
5 +9
 Argentina
34%
25%
41 +9
 Kenya
40%
27%
33 +13
 Nigeria
41%
28%
31 +13
 Indonesia
46%
31%
24 +15
 South Korea
53%
35%
11 +18
 Tunisia
55%
30%
16 +25
 Philippines
63%
26%
12 +37
Results of 2017 BBC World Service poll.
Views of Russia's influence by country[18]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 United States
16%
72%
12 -56
 United Kingdom
21%
74%
5 -53
 Canada
18%
71%
11 -53
 France
23%
71%
6 -48
 Spain
15%
63%
22 -48
 Australia
22%
67%
11 -45
 Germany
6%
47%
47 -41
 Turkey
28%
54%
18 -26
 Brazil
30%
50%
20 -20
 Peru
31%
44%
25 -13
 Pakistan
20%
30%
50 -10
 Indonesia
29%
38%
33 -9
 Mexico
37%
42%
21 -5
 Kenya
38%
39%
23 -1
 Nigeria
42%
39%
19 +3
 India
40%
19%
39 +21
 Greece
48%
21%
31 +27
 China
74%
18%
8 +56
 Russia
73%
7%
20 +66

In October 2004, the International Gallup Organization announced that according to its poll, anti-Russia sentiment remained fairly strong throughout Europe and the West in general. It found that Russia was the least popular G-8 country globally. The percentage of population with a "very negative" or "fairly negative" perception of Russia was 73% in Kosovo, 62% in Finland, 57% in Norway, 42% in the Czech Republic and Switzerland, 37% in Germany, 32% in Denmark and Poland, and 23% in Estonia. Overall, the percentage of respondents with a positive view of Russia was only 31%.[19][20][21]

According to a 2014 survey by Pew Research Center, attitudes towards Russia in most countries worsened considerably during Russia's involvement in the 2014 crisis in Ukraine. From 2013 to 2014, the median negative attitudes in Europe rose from 54% to 75%, and from 43% to 72% in the United States. Negative attitudes also rose compared to 2013 throughout the Middle East, Latin America, Asia and Africa.[22]

There is the question of whether or not negative attitudes towards Russia and frequent criticism of the Russian government in western media contributes to negative attitudes towards Russian people and culture. In a Guardian article, British academic Piers Robinson claims that "Indeed western governments frequently engage in strategies of manipulation through deception involving exaggeration, omission, and misdirection".[23] In a 2012 survey, the percentage of Russian immigrants in the EU that indicated that they had experienced racially motivated hate crimes was 5%, which is less than the average of 10% reported by several groups of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the EU.[24] 17% of Russian immigrants in the EU said that they had been victims of crimes the last 12 months, for example, theft, attacks, frightening threats or harassment, as compared to an average of 24% among several groups of immigrants and ethnic minorities.[25]