Bolivia

  • plurinational state of bolivia

    estado plurinacional de bolivia  (spanish)
    tetã hetãvoregua mborivia  (guarani)
    wuliwya suyu  (aymara)
    puliwya mamallaqta  (quechua)
    flag of bolivia
    flag
    coat of arms of bolivia
    coat of arms
    motto: "la unión es la fuerza" (spanish)
    "unity is strength"[1]
    anthem: "himno nacional de bolivia" (spanish)
    location of bolivia (dark green) in south america (grey)
    location of bolivia (dark green)

    in south america (grey)

    location of bolivia
    capitalsucre (constitutional and judicial)
    la paz (executive and legislative)
    largest citysanta cruz de la sierra
    17°48′s 63°10′w / 17°48′s 63°10′w / -17.800; -63.167
    official languages[2]
    ethnic groups
    (2018[3])
    • 68% mestizo
    • 20% indigenous
    • 5% white
    • 1% black
    • 4% other
    • 2% unspecified
    demonym(s)bolivian
    governmentunitary presidential constitutional republic
    • president
    jeanine Áñez (interim)[4][5]
    • vice president
    vacant
    legislatureplurinational legislative assembly
    • upper house
    senate
    • lower house
    chamber of deputies
    independence 
    from spain
    • declared
    6 august 1825
    • recognized
    21 july 1847
    • admitted to the united nations
    14 november 1945
    • current constitution
    7 february 2009
    area
    • total
    1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) (27th)
    • water (%)
    1.29
    population
    • 2019[6] estimate
    11,428,245 (83rd)
    • density
    10.4/km2 (26.9/sq mi) (224th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    $89.018 billion
    • per capita
    $7,790[7]
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    $43.687 billion
    • per capita
    $3,823[7]
    gini (2016)positive decrease 44.6[8]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.703[9]
    high · 114th
    currencyboliviano (bob)
    time zoneutc−4 (bot)
    driving sideright
    calling code+591
    iso 3166 codebo
    internet tld.bo
    1. ^ while sucre is the constitutional capital, la paz is the seat of the government as member of the ucci and the de facto capital. see below.

    bolivia[10] (ə/ (about this soundlisten) spanish pronunciation: [bo.ˈli.βja]), officially the plurinational state of bolivia (spanish: estado plurinacional de bolivia spanish pronunciation: [esˈtaðo pluɾinasjoˈnal de βoˈliβja] (about this soundlisten)),[11][12] is a landlocked country located in western-central south america. the capital is sucre, while the seat of government and financial center is located in la paz. the largest city and principal industrial center is santa cruz de la sierra, located on the llanos orientales (tropical lowlands), a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

    the sovereign state of bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments. its geography varies from the peaks of the andes in the west, to the eastern lowlands, situated within the amazon basin. it is bordered to the north and east by brazil, to the southeast by paraguay, to the south by argentina, to the southwest by chile, and to the northwest by peru. one-third of the country is within the andean mountain range. with 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) of area, bolivia is the fifth largest country in south america, after brazil, argentina, peru and colombia (and alongside paraguay, one of the only two landlocked countries in the americas), the 27th largest in the world, the largest landlocked country in the southern hemisphere and the world's seventh largest landlocked country, after kazakhstan, mongolia, chad, niger, mali and ethiopia.

    the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including amerindians, mestizos, europeans, asians and africans. spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are guarani, aymara and quechua languages.

    before spanish colonization, the andean region of bolivia was part of the inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. spanish conquistadors arriving from cuzco and asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. during the spanish colonial period bolivia was administered by the royal audiencia of charcas. spain built its empire in large part upon the silver that was extracted from bolivia's mines. after the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the republic, named for simón bolívar. over the course of the 19th and early 20th century bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by chile in 1879. bolivia remained relatively politically stable until 1971, when hugo banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of juan josé torres with a military dictatorship headed by banzer; torres was murdered in buenos aires, argentina by a right-wing death squad in 1976. banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of bolivian citizens. banzer was ousted in 1978 and later returned as the democratically elected president of bolivia from 1997 to 2001.

    modern bolivia is a charter member of the un, imf, nam, oas, acto, bank of the south, alba and usan. for over a decade bolivia has had[when?] one of the highest economic growth rates in latin america; however, it remains the second poorest country in south america.[13] it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the human development index, a poverty level of 38.6%,[14] and one of the lowest crime rates in latin america.[15] its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. bolivia is very rich in minerals, including tin, silver, and lithium.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • politics and government
  • administrative divisions
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  • notes
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Plurinational State of Bolivia

Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)
Tetã Hetãvoregua Mborivia  (Guarani)
Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)
Puliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua)
Motto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish)
"Unity is Strength"[1]
Anthem: "Himno Nacional de Bolivia" (Spanish)
Location of Bolivia (dark green) in South America (grey)
Location of Bolivia (dark green)

in South America (grey)

Location of Bolivia
CapitalSucre (constitutional and judicial)
La Paz (executive and legislative)
Largest citySanta Cruz de la Sierra
17°48′S 63°10′W / 17°48′S 63°10′W / -17.800; -63.167
Official languages[2]
Ethnic groups
(2018[3])
Demonym(s)Bolivian
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Jeanine Áñez (interim)[4][5]
Vacant
LegislaturePlurinational Legislative Assembly
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
from Spain
• Declared
6 August 1825
• Recognized
21 July 1847
14 November 1945
• Current constitution
7 February 2009
Area
• Total
1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) (27th)
• Water (%)
1.29
Population
• 2019[6] estimate
11,428,245 (83rd)
• Density
10.4/km2 (26.9/sq mi) (224th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$89.018 billion
• Per capita
$7,790[7]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$43.687 billion
• Per capita
$3,823[7]
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 44.6[8]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.703[9]
high · 114th
CurrencyBoliviano (BOB)
Time zoneUTC−4 (BOT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+591
ISO 3166 codeBO
Internet TLD.bo
  1. ^ While Sucre is the constitutional capital, La Paz is the seat of the government as member of the UCCI and the de facto capital. See below.

Bolivia[10] (ə/ (About this soundlisten) Spanish pronunciation: [bo.ˈli.βja]), officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia Spanish pronunciation: [esˈtaðo pluɾinasjoˈnal de βoˈliβja] (About this soundlisten)),[11][12] is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and financial center is located in La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (tropical lowlands), a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi) of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, after Brazil, Argentina, Peru and Colombia (and alongside Paraguay, one of the only two landlocked countries in the Americas), the 27th largest in the world, the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere and the world's seventh largest landlocked country, after Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Chad, Niger, Mali and Ethiopia.

The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages.

Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879. Bolivia remained relatively politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer; Torres was murdered in Buenos Aires, Argentina by a right-wing death squad in 1976. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and later returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001.

Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had[when?] one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America; however, it remains the second poorest country in South America.[13] It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%,[14] and one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America.[15] Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, including tin, silver, and lithium.