Carnation Revolution

  • carnation revolution
    part of the portuguese transition to democracy and the cold war
    25 de abril sempre henrique matos.jpg
    "25th of april always!"
    date25 april 1974; 45 years ago (1974-04-25)
    location
    portugal
    caused by
    • repression of civil liberties, political freedom, and freedom of speech
    • increase in anti-colonialism, military expenditure, and international isolation
    methodscoup d'état, nonviolent revolution
    resulted in
    • dissolution of the portuguese empire
    • beginning of the portuguese transition to democracy
    • end of the portuguese colonial war and independence of angola, cape verde, guinea-bissau, mozambique, and são tomé and príncipe
    • indonesian invasion of east timor
    parties to the civil conflict
    armed forces movement
    estado novo regime
    lead figures
    • otelo saraiva de carvalho
    • salgueiro maia
    • américo tomás
    • marcello caetano
    casualties and losses
    4 killed

    the carnation revolution (portuguese: revolução dos cravos), also known as the 25 april (portuguese: 25 de abril), was initially a 25 april 1974 military coup in lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian estado novo regime.[1] the revolution began as a coup organised by the armed forces movement (portuguese: movimento das forças armadas, mfa), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. the revolution led to the fall of the estado novo, terminated the portuguese colonial war, and started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic portugal.

    its name arose from the fact that almost no shots were fired, and celeste caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship; other demonstrators followed suit, and carnations were placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[2] in portugal, 25 april is a national holiday (portuguese: dia da liberdade, freedom day) which commemorates the revolution.

  • overview
  • history
  • revolution
  • aftermath
  • freedom day
  • commemorations
  • analysis
  • films
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Carnation Revolution
Part of the Portuguese transition to democracy and the Cold War
25 de Abril sempre Henrique Matos.jpg
"25th of April always!"
Date25 April 1974; 45 years ago (1974-04-25)
Location
Portugal
Caused by
MethodsCoup d'état, nonviolent revolution
Resulted in
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Casualties and losses
4 killed

The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime.[1] The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement (Portuguese: Movimento das Forças Armadas, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. The revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, terminated the Portuguese Colonial War, and started a revolutionary process that would result in a democratic Portugal.

Its name arose from the fact that almost no shots were fired, and Celeste Caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship; other demonstrators followed suit, and carnations were placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.[2] In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade, Freedom Day) which commemorates the revolution.