Criminology

  • criminology (from latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the ancient greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and ancient greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: "word," "reason," or "plan") is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behaviour, both on individual and social levels. criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.

    the term criminology was coined in 1885 by italian law professor raffaele garofalo as criminologia [it]. later, french anthropologist paul topinard used the analogous french term criminologie [fr].[1] paul topinard's major work appeared in 1879. in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the emphasis of criminology was on the reform of criminal law and not on the causes of crime. scholars such as beccaria and bentham, were more concerned with the humanitarian aspects in dealing with criminals and reforming several criminal laws. great progress in criminology was made after the first quarter of the twentieth century. the first american textbook on criminology was written in 1920 by sociologist maurice parmalee under the title criminology. programmes were developed for the specific purpose of training students to be criminologists, but the development was rather slow.

    from 1900 through to 2000 the study underwent three significant phases in the united states: (1) golden age of research (1900-1930)-which has been described as a multiple-factor approach, (2) golden age of theory (1930-1960)-which shows that there was no systematic way of connecting criminological research to theory, and (3) a 1960-2000 period-which was seen as a significant turning point for criminology.[2]

    criminologists are the people working and researching all of the ins and outs of criminology. criminologists often look for behavioral patterns of a possible criminal in hopes of finding a particular perpetrator. they also conduct research and investigations, developing theories, and composing results, and often more than not solve crimes.[3]

    the interests of criminologists include the study of nature of crime and criminals, origins of criminal law, etiology of crime, social reaction to crime, and the functioning of law enforcement agencies and the penal institutions. it can be broadly said that criminology directs its enquiries along three lines: first, it investigates the nature of criminal law and its administration and conditions under which it develops, second, it analyses the causation of crime and the personality of criminals; and third, it studies the control of crime and the rehabilitation of offenders. thus, criminology includes within its scope the activities of legislative bodies, law-enforcement agencies, judicial institutions, correctional institutions and educational, private and public social agencies.

  • criminological schools of thought
  • social network analysis
  • relative deprivation theory
  • rural criminology
  • public criminology
  • types and definitions of crime
  • subtopics
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: "word," "reason," or "plan") is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behaviour, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.

The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as Criminologia [it]. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term Criminologie [fr].[1] Paul Topinard's major work appeared in 1879. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the emphasis of criminology was on the reform of criminal law and not on the causes of crime. Scholars such as Beccaria and Bentham, were more concerned with the humanitarian aspects in dealing with criminals and reforming several criminal laws. Great progress in criminology was made after the first quarter of the twentieth century. The first American textbook on criminology was written in 1920 by sociologist Maurice Parmalee under the title Criminology. Programmes were developed for the specific purpose of training students to be criminologists, but the development was rather slow.

From 1900 through to 2000 the study underwent three significant phases in the United States: (1) Golden Age of Research (1900-1930)-which has been described as a multiple-factor approach, (2) Golden Age of Theory (1930-1960)-which shows that there was no systematic way of connecting criminological research to theory, and (3) a 1960-2000 period-which was seen as a significant turning point for criminology.[2]

Criminologists are the people working and researching all of the ins and outs of criminology. Criminologists often look for behavioral patterns of a possible criminal in hopes of finding a particular perpetrator. They also conduct research and investigations, developing theories, and composing results, and often more than not solve crimes.[3]

The interests of criminologists include the study of nature of crime and criminals, origins of criminal law, etiology of crime, social reaction to crime, and the functioning of law enforcement agencies and the penal institutions. It can be broadly said that criminology directs its enquiries along three lines: first, it investigates the nature of criminal law and its administration and conditions under which it develops, second, it analyses the causation of crime and the personality of criminals; and third, it studies the control of crime and the rehabilitation of offenders. Thus, criminology includes within its scope the activities of legislative bodies, law-enforcement agencies, judicial institutions, correctional institutions and educational, private and public social agencies.