Foods rich in fibers: fruits, vegetables and grains
has a high content of dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. It has two main components:
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a gelatinous, viscous substance which may or may not be fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract. Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented. Lignin, a major dietary insoluble fiber source, may alter the rate and metabolism of soluble fibers. Other types of insoluble fiber, notably resistant starch, are fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids, which are physiologically active and confer health benefits. Health benefit from dietary fiber and whole grains may include a decreased risk of death and lower rates of coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
Food sources of dietary fiber have traditionally been divided according to whether they provide soluble or insoluble fiber. Plant foods contain both types of fiber in varying amounts, according to the plant's characteristics of viscosity and fermentability. Advantages of consuming fiber depend upon which type of fiber is consumed and which benefits may result in the gastrointestinal system. Bulking fibers – such as cellulose, hemicellulose and psyllium – absorb and hold water, promoting regularity. Viscous fibers – such as beta-glucan and psyllium – thicken the fecal mass. Fermentable fibers – such as resistant starch and inulin – feed the bacteria and microbiota of the large intestine, and are metabolized to yield short-chain fatty acids, which have diverse roles in gastrointestinal health.
Dietary fiber is defined to be plant components that are not broken down by human digestive enzymes. In the late 20th century, only lignin and some polysaccharides were known to satisfy this definition, but in the early 21st century, resistant starch and oligosaccharides were included as dietary fiber components.
Official definition of dietary fiber varies among different institutions:
|Institute of Medicine
|Dietary fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. "Added Fiber" consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.
|American Association of Cereal Chemists
|Dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine, with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine. Dietary fiber includes polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin, and associated plant substances. Dietary fibers promote beneficial physiologic effects including laxation, and/or blood cholesterol attenuation, and/or blood glucose attenuation.
|Codex Alimentarius Commission
(2014; adopted by the European Commission and 10 countries internationally)
|Dietary fiber means carbohydrate polymers with more than 10 monomeric units, which are not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in the small intestine of humans.
|British Nutrition Foundation
|Dietary fibre refers to a group of substances in plant foods which cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. This includes waxes, lignin and polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin. Originally it was thought that dietary fibre was completely indigestible and did not provide any energy. It is now known that some fibre can be fermented in the large intestine by gut bacteria, producing short chain fatty acids and gases.
||Fibre means carbohydrate polymers with three or more monomeric units, which are neither digested nor absorbed in the human small intestine. According to the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, "the EU and US definitions differ from the Codex Alimentarius definition (FAO 2009) on the number of monomers that constitute the carbohydrate polymer; while the EU and US includes three or more monomeric units, the Codex definition specifies ten or more, leaving national authorities to decide whether to include as fibre also carbohydrates with 3-9 monomers."