Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha
Eid Blessings WDL6855.png
Blessings for Eid al-Adha
Official nameعيد الأضحى
Eid al-Adha
Observed byMuslims and Druze
TypeIslamic
Significance
ObservancesEid prayers, animal sacrifice, charity, social gatherings, festive meals, gift-giving
Begins10 Dhu al-Hijjah nbm,
Ends13 Dhu al-Hijjah
Date10 Dhu al-Hijjah
2019 date11 August[1][2]
2020 date30/31 July[3]
Related toHajj; Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى‎, romanizedʿīd al-ʾaḍḥā, lit. 'Feast of the Sacrifice', IPA: [ʕiːd ælˈʔɑdˤħæː]) or Eid Qurban (Persian: عيد قربان‎), also called the "Festival of the Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two. It honours the willingness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son as an act of obedience to God's command. But, before Abraham could sacrifice his son, God provided a goat to sacrifice instead. In commemoration of this intervention, an animal is sacrificed ritually and divided into three parts. One share is given to the poor and needy, another is kept for home, and the third is given to relatives.

In the Islamic lunar calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, and lasts for four days. In the international (Gregorian) calendar, the dates vary from year to year shifting approximately 11 days earlier each year.

Other names

In languages other than Arabic, the name is often simply translated into the local language, such as English Feast of the Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului, and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is known as Fiesta del Cordero[5] or Fiesta del Borrego (both meaning "festival of the lamb"). In Kurdish it is known as (Cejna Qurbanê / جەژنی قوربان). It is also known as Eid Qurban (عید قربان) in Persian speaking countries such as Afghanistan and Iran, Kurban Bayramı[6][7] in Turkey,[8] কোরবানীর ঈদ in Bangladesh, as عید الكبير the big Feast in the Maghreb, as Iduladha, Hari Raya Aiduladha, Hari Raya Haji or Qurban in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines, as بکرا عید "Goat Eid" or بڑی عید "Greater Eid" in India and Pakistan, Bakara Eid in Trinidad and Tobago, as Tabaski or Tobaski in The Gambia, Guinea, and Senegal (most probably borrowed from the Serer language – and an ancient Serer religious festival[9][10][11][12]), and as Odún Iléyá by the Yorúbà people of Nigeria[13][14][15][16]

The following names are used as other names of Eid al-Adha:

  • عیدالاضحیٰ (transliterations of the Arabic name)[17] is used in Urdu, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian.
  • العيد الكبير meaning "Greater Eid" (the "Lesser Eid" being Eid al-Fitr)[18] is used in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt). Local language translations are used لوی اختر in Pashto, Kashmiri (Baed Eid), Urdu and Hindi (Baṛī Īd), বড় ঈদ in Bengali, Tamil (Peru Nāl, "Great Day") and Malayalam (Bali Perunnal, "Great Day of Sacrifice") as well as Manding varieties in West Africa such as Bambara, Maninka, Jula etc. (ߛߊߟߌߓߊ ߛߊߟߌߓߊ Seliba, "Big/great prayer").
  • عید البقرة (eid al-baqara) meaning "the Feast of Cows (also sheep or goats)" is used in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Although the word ‏بقرة‎ properly means a cow, it is also semantically extended to mean all livestock, especially sheep or goats. This extension is used in Hindi and Urdu as a very similar name ईद-उल-अज़हा (īd-ul-azhā, 'the Feast of goat') is used for the occasion.
  • The Feast of Sacrifice is used in Uzbekistan.
  • The Hajj Feast[13][14] is used in Malaysian and Indonesian, in the Philippines.
  • Big Sallah in Nigeria, as it is considered to be holier than Eid al-Fitr (which is locally known as the "Small Sallah").[19] "Ram Sallah" is also used, as it refers to the rams that are being sacrificed on that day.

Etymology

The word عيد (ʿīd) means 'festival', 'celebration', 'feast day', or 'holiday'. It itself is a triliteral rootعيد‎ with associated root meanings of "to go back, to rescind, to accrue, to be accustomed, habits, to repeat, to be experienced; appointed time or place, anniversary, feast day."[20][21] Arthur Jeffery contests this etymology, and believes the term to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac, or less likely Targumic Aramaic.[22]

The words أضحى (aḍḥā) and قربان (qurbān) are synonymous in meaning 'sacrifice' (animal sacrifice), 'offering' or 'oblation'. The first word comes from the triliteral root ضحى (ḍaḥḥā) with associated meanings of "immolate ; offer up ; sacrifice ; victimize."[23] No occurrence of this root with a meaning related to sacrifice occurs in the Qur'an[20] but in the Hadith literature. Arab Christians use the term to mean the Eucharistic host. The second word derives from the triliteral root ‏‏قرب‎‎ (qaraba) with associated meanings of "closeness, proximity... to moderate; kinship...; to hurry; ...to seek, to seek water sources...; scabbard, sheath; small boat; sacrifice."[21] Arthur Jeffery recognizes the same Semitic root, but believes the sense of the term to have entered Arabic through Aramaic.[22] Compare Hebrew korban קָרבן (qorbān).