          # Electromagnetism

• this article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (november 2012) (learn how and when to remove this template message) electromagnetism part of a series of articles about electricity magnetism electrostatics conductor coulomb's law electric charge electric dipole moment electric field electric flux / potential energy electrostatic discharge gauss's law induction insulator polarization density static electricity triboelectricity magnetostatics ampère's law biot–savart law gauss's law for magnetism magnetic field magnetic flux magnetic dipole moment magnetization magnetomotive force electrodynamics lorentz force law electromagnetic induction faraday's law lenz's law displacement current magnetic potential maxwell's equations electromagnetic field electromagnetic pulse electromagnetic radiation maxwell tensor poynting vector liénard–wiechert potential jefimenko's equations eddy current london equations mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field electrical network alternating current capacitance direct current electric current electric potential electromotive force impedance inductance ohm's law parallel circuit resistance resonant cavities series circuit voltage waveguides covariant formulation electromagnetic tensor(stress–energy tensor) four-current electromagnetic four-potential scientists ampère biot coulomb faraday fizeau gauss heaviside henry hertz lenz lorentz maxwell Ørsted ritchie savart singer tesla volta weber vt

electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. the electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. it is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. at high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions.

electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. the electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. the electromagnetic attraction between atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons holds atoms together. electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules, and intermolecular forces. the electromagnetic force governs all chemical processes, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms.

there are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. in classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current. in faraday's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents.

the theoretical implications of electromagnetism, particularly the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by albert einstein in 1905.

• history of the theory
• fundamental forces
• classical electrodynamics
• extension to nonlinear phenomena
• quantities and units
## "Electromagnetic Force" redirects here. For a description of the force exerted on particles due to electromagnetic fields, see Lorentz force. "Electromagnetic" redirects here. Electromagnetic may also refer to the use of an electromagnet. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Part of a series of articles aboutElectromagnetism Electricity Magnetism Electrostatics Conductor Coulomb's law Electric charge Electric dipole moment Electric field Electric flux / potential energy Electrostatic discharge Gauss's law Induction Insulator Polarization density Static electricity Triboelectricity Magnetostatics Ampère's law Biot–Savart law Gauss's law for magnetism Magnetic field Magnetic flux Magnetic dipole moment Magnetization Magnetomotive force Electrodynamics Lorentz force law Electromagnetic induction Faraday's law Lenz's law Displacement current Magnetic potential Maxwell's equations Electromagnetic field Electromagnetic pulse Electromagnetic radiation Maxwell tensor Poynting vector Liénard–Wiechert potential Jefimenko's equations Eddy current London equations Mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field Electrical network Alternating current Capacitance Direct current Electric current Electric potential Electromotive force Impedance Inductance Ohm's law Parallel circuit Resistance Resonant cavities Series circuit Voltage Waveguides Covariant formulation Electromagnetic tensor(stress–energy tensor) Four-current Electromagnetic four-potential Scientists Ampère Biot Coulomb Faraday Fizeau Gauss Heaviside Henry Hertz Lenz Lorentz Maxwell Ørsted Ritchie Savart Singer Tesla Volta Weber vt Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. It is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. Lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. The electromagnetic attraction between atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons holds atoms together. Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules, and intermolecular forces. The electromagnetic force governs all chemical processes, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms. There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current. In Faraday's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents. The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, particularly the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905. Contents 1 History of the theory 2 Fundamental forces 3 Classical electrodynamics 4 Extension to nonlinear phenomena 5 Quantities and units 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 8.1 Web sources 8.2 Textbooks 8.3 General references 9 External links  