Ethnopluralism

Ethnopluralism or ethno-pluralism is a new right [1] concept which relies on preserving and mutually respecting individual ethno-cultural regions.[1][2] A key component being the right to difference and strong support for cultural diversity. Proponents describe it as an alternative to multiculturalism and globalization claiming that it strives to keep the world's different cultures alive by embracing their uniqueness and avoiding a one world doctrine in which every region is culturally identical. According to the concept of ethnopluralism significant foreign cultural elements in one region ought to be culturally assimilated leading to a cultural homogenization in the given region, the idea being many different cultures in different geographical areas.[3][4] The idea is closely associated with movements such as the Nouvelle Droite, the Identitarian Movement and French academic and philosopher Alain de Benoist.[1]

Concept

Ethnopluralism has been proposed by certain new right thinkers[1] and activists as means to facilitate independent ethno-cultural societies.[5] This idea tends to utilize Cultural assimilation of foreign cultural norms in order to preserve an ethno-culture's inherent forms and resemblences.[4]

Ethnopluralism emphasizes the separation of varying ethno-cultural groups, in contrast to cultural integration and intra-cultural diversity. It has been part of the ideological foundation of the European New Right, which has used ethnopluralism to express its favoritism towards the cultural identity of individual groups, thus expressing its opposition to heterogeneity within states.[2] These views of culture, ethnicity and race have become popular among several right-wing and far-right groups in Europe since the 1970s, and has been covered in some postmodern left sources (i.e. Telos) also.[3]

Ethnopluralists use the concept of cultural differentialism to assert a "right to difference" to propose regional policies of ethnic and racial separatism. Among ethnopluralists there is no agreed upon definition of group membership, nor where these hypothetical borders would lie. Some ethnopluralists advocate limiting Europe to "true Europeans", while others propose much smaller divisions, similar to an ethnically-based communitarianism. While some ethnopluralists would allow European Muslims to remain in Europe, Jews and Romani are typically rejected by ethnopluralists.[4] French Nouvelle Droite philosopher Alain de Benoist claims that indigenous cultures in Europe are being threatened, and that pan-European nationalism based on ethnopluralism would stop this process.[3] Benoist has proposed ethnic and social territories be as small as possible, such that Muslims would be allowed ghettos in Europe subordinate to sharia.[4]

According to ethnomusicologist Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, the term "ethnopluralism" was first coined by German sociologist Henning Eichberg in an essay that was written in opposition to both Western and European eurocentrism.[6]