The above definition of FPDA developed from the ideas of the formalist, Mikhail Bakhtin (1981)] and the poststructuralist thinkers Jacques Derrida (1987)] and Michel Foucault (1972) in relation to power, knowledge and discourses. It is also based on the feminist work of Victorial Bergvall (1998)], Judith Butler (1990) Bronwyn Davies (1997), Valerie Walkerdine (1990)] and especially Chris Weedon (1997). Adopters of FPDA include Judith Baxter in the analysis of classroom talk and business meeting interactions; Laurel Kamada (2008; 2008; 2010) in the analysis of 'hybrid' identities of half-Japanese girls, Harold Castañeda-Peña (2008) in the examination of pupils in an EFL classroom in Brazil; Helen Sauntson in the analysis of UK secondary school classroom talk; and Paul Baker(2013) in the study of newspaper representations of predatory women. FPDA is based on the following principles, which continue to be discussed and debated by scholars:
- Discourse as social practice (rather than, or additional to, ‘language above the sentence’ or as ‘language in use’ (Cameron, 2001)
- The performative (rather than the essentialist or possessive) nature of speakers’ identities; gender is something people enact or do, not something they are or characterise (Butler 1990)
- The diversity and multiplicity of speakers’ identities: thus, gender is just one of many cultural variables constructing speakers’ identities (e.g. regional background, ethnicity, class, age), though it is still viewed as potentially highly significant
- The construction of meaning within localised or context-specific settings or communities of practice such as classrooms, board meetings, TV talk shows
- An interest in deconstruction: working out how binary power relations (e.g. males/females, public/private, objective/subjective) constitute identities, subject positions and interactions within discourses and texts, and challenging such binaries
- Inter-discursivity: recognising ways in which one discourse is always inscribed and inflected with traces of other discourses, or how one text is interwoven with another
- The need for continuous self-reflexivity: being continuously explicit and questioning about the values and assumptions made by discourse analysis.