The country has an area of 310,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) and a population of 2.5 million, of whom 1.9 million are citizens. The government does not keep official statistics on religious affiliation, but three quarters of Omanis adhere to the Ibadi sect of Islam, while the remaining 25% are either Sunni or Shia Muslims. There are small communities of 5% ethnically Indian Hindus and Christians that have been naturalized. Ibadism historically has been Oman's dominant religious sect, and the Sultan is a member of the Ibadi community. The Government, however, does not give official preference to any particular religious group.
Non-Ibadi and non-Sunni religious communities individually constitute less than 5 percent of the population and include, Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians. Christian communities are centered in the major urban areas of Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah and are represented by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and various Protestant congregations. These groups tend to organize along linguistic and ethnic lines. More than 50 different Christian groups, fellowships, and assemblies are active in the Muscat metropolitan area. Shi'a Muslims are a small but well-integrated minority, concentrated in the capital area and along the northern coast. The majority of non-Muslims, however, are noncitizen immigrant workers from South Asia. There are also communities of ethnic Indian Hindus. Muscat has two Hindu temples. One of them is over a hundred years old. There is also a significant Sikh community in Oman. Though there are no permanent gurudwaras, many smaller gurudwaras in makeshift camps exist and are recognised by the government. The Government of India had signed an accord in 2008 with the Omani government to build a permanent gurudwara but little progress has been made on the matter.