location of galicia (green) in europe (dark gray)
map of the kingdom of galicia and lodomeria
map of europe in 1328
galicia (/; ukrainian and rusyn: Галичина, halyčyna; polish: galicja; czech and slovak: halič; german: galizien; hungarian: galícia/kaliz/gácsország/halics; romanian: galiția/halici; russian: Галиция, galitsiya; yiddish: גאַליציע galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region between central and eastern europe. it was once the small kingdom of galicia–volhynia and later a crown land of austria-hungary, the kingdom of galicia and lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between poland and ukraine. the area, named after the medieval city of halych, was first mentioned in hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as galiciæ. in 1253 prince daniel of galicia was crowned the king of rus (latin: rex rusiae) or king of ruthenia following the mongol invasion in ruthenia (kievan rus). in 1352 the kingdom of poland annexed the kingdom of galicia and volhynia as the ruthenian voivodeship (latin: palatinatus russiae).
the nucleus of historic galicia lies within the modern regions of western ukraine: the lviv, ternopil and ivano-frankivsk oblasts near halych.
in the 18th century, territories that later became part of the modern polish regions of the lesser poland voivodeship, subcarpathian voivodeship and silesian voivodeship were added to galicia. it covers much of such historic regions as red ruthenia (centered on lviv) and lesser poland (centered in kraków). galicia became contested ground between poland and ruthenia from medieval times, and in the 20th century between poland and ukraine. in the 10th century, several cities were founded in galicia, such as volodymyr and jaroslaw, whose names mark their connections with grand princes of kiev. there is considerable overlap between galicia and podolia (to the east) as well as between galicia and south-west ruthenia, especially in a cross-border region (centred on carpathian ruthenia) inhabited by various nationalities.