General Offensive of 1 March 1949

General Offensive of 1 March 1949
Serangan Umum 1 Maret 1949
Part of the Indonesian National Revolution
Munumen Serangan Umum 1 Maret 1949.jpg
Monument in Yogyakarta commemorating the offensive
Date1 March 1949
Location
ResultDutch tactical victory; Indonesian political victory
Belligerents
 Indonesia Netherlands
Commanders and leaders
Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX
Col. Bambang Soegeng
Col. Abdul Haris Nasution
Lt. Col. Suharto
Maj. Gen. Langen
Maj. Gen. Meyer
Lt. Col. J.M. v/d Berge
Units involved
Tentara Republik IndonesiaRoyal Netherlands Army
Royal Netherlands East Indies Army
Strength
10,000–30,0002,000–3,000
Casualties and losses
300 soldiers and 53 policemen killed3 soldiers killed
3 policemen and 14 soldiers wounded
A stone marking the Dutch forces' line of withdrawal from Yogyakarta.

The General Offensive of 1 March 1949 (Indonesian: Serangan Umum 1 Maret 1949) was a military offensive during the Indonesian National Revolution.

Background

Frustrated at negotiations with the Republic and believing it weakened by both the Darul Islam and Madiun insurgencies, the Dutch launched a military offensive on 19 December 1948 which it termed 'Operatie Kraai' (Operation Crow). By the following day it had conquered the city of Yogyakarta, the location of the temporary Republican capital. By the end of December, all major Republican held cities in Java and Sumatra were in Dutch hands. The Republican President, Vice-President, and all but six Republic of Indonesia ministers were captured by Dutch troops and exiled on Bangka Island off the east coast of Sumatra. In areas surrounding Yogyakarta and Surakarta, Republican forces refused to surrender and continued to wage a guerrilla war under the leadership of Republican military chief of staff General Sudirman who had escaped the Dutch offensives. An emergency Republican government, the Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia (PDRI), was established in West Sumatra.