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Geography is often defined in terms of two branches:
The four historical traditions in geographical research are:
Geography is a systematic study of the earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with
Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole
gazetteerfull of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena (alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latter), to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.— William Hughes, 1863
Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography.
Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: