Georgia (country)

  • georgia

    საქართველო (georgian)
    sakartvelo
    flag of georgia
    flag
    coat of arms of georgia
    coat of arms
    motto: 
    ძალა ერთობაშია
    dzala ertobashia
    (english: "strength is in unity")
    anthem: 
    თავისუფლება
    tavisupleba
    (english: "freedom")
    areas under georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
    areas under georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
    location of georgia
    capitalflag of tbilisi.svg tbilisi
    41°43′n 44°47′e / 41°43′n 44°47′e / 41.717; 44.783
    largest citytbilisi
    official languagesgeorgian (nationwide)
    abkhazian (abkhazian ar)[1][2]
    ethnic groups
    (2014[a])
    86.8% georgians
      6.2% azerbaijanis
      4.5% armenians
      2.8% other
    religion
    • 83.4% eastern orthodoxy (georgian orthodox church)
    • 10.7% islam
    • 3.9% oriental orthodoxy
    • 0.8% roman catholic church
    • 1.2% none/ other
    demonym(s)georgian
    governmentunitary parliamentary constitutional republic
    • president
    salome zurabishvili
    • chairperson of
    the parliament
    archil talakvadze
    • prime minister
    giorgi gakharia
    legislatureparliament
    establishment history
    • colchis and iberia
    13th c. bc – 580 ad
    • kingdoms of abkhazia and bagratid iberia
    786–1008
    • united georgian monarchy
    1008
    • the tripartite division
    1463–1810
    • russian annexation

    12 september 1801
    • independence from the russian empire

    26 may 1918
    • russian re-conquest
    25 february 1921
    • independence from the soviet union
    declared
    finalized


    9 april 1991
    25 december 1991
    • current constitution
    24 august 1995
    area
    • total
    69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)
    population
    • 2019 estimate
    3,723,464[a][3] (129th)
    • 2014 census
    3,713,804[a][4]
    • density
    53.5/km2 (138.6/sq mi) (137th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    $46.05 billion[5] (112th)
    • per capita
    $12,409[5] (101st)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    $17.83 billion[5] (118st)
    • per capita
    $4,285[6] (107th)
    gini (2018)positive decrease 36.4[7]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.786[8]
    high · 70th
    currencygeorgian lari (₾) (gel)
    time zoneutc+4 (get)
    driving sideright
    calling code+995
    iso 3166 codege
    internet tld.ge www.gov.ge
    1. ^ data not including occupied territories.

    georgia (georgian: საქართველო, translit.: sakartvelo, ipa: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] (about this soundlisten)), known until 1995 as the republic of georgia (georgian: საქართველოს რესპუბლიკა, translit.: sakartvelos resp'ublik'a), is a country in the caucasus region of eurasia. located at the crossroads of western asia and eastern europe, it is bounded to the west by the black sea, to the north by russia, to the south by turkey and armenia, and to the southeast by azerbaijan. the capital and largest city is tbilisi. georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. georgia is a unitary parliamentary republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

    during the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now georgia, such as colchis and iberia. the georgians officially adopted christianity in the early 4th century. the georgian orthodox church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early georgian states. the unified kingdom of georgia reached its golden age during the reign of king david the builder and queen tamar the great in the 12th and early 13th centuries. thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the mongols, the ottoman empire and successive dynasties of iran. in the late 18th century, the eastern georgian kingdom of kartli-kakheti forged an alliance with the russian empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western kingdom of imereti in 1810. russian rule over georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with iran and the ottomans and the remaining georgian territories were absorbed by the russian empire in a piecemeal fashion through the course of the 19th century.

    during the civil war following the russian revolution in 1917, georgia briefly became part of the transcaucasian federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. soviet georgia would be incorporated into a new transcaucasian federation that, in 1922, would be a founding republic of the soviet union. in 1936, the transcaucasian federation was dissolved and georgia emerged as a union republic. during world war ii, almost 700,000 georgians fought in the red army against the germans. after soviet leader joseph stalin, a native georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against nikita khrushchev and his de-stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956.

    by the 1980s, an independence movement was established and grew, leading to georgia's secession from the soviet union in april 1991. for most of the following decade, post-soviet georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in abkhazia and south ossetia, and economic crisis. following the bloodless rose revolution in 2003, georgia strongly pursued a pro-western foreign policy; aimed at nato and european integration, it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms. this brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions. the country's western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with russia, culminating in the brief russo-georgian war in august 2008 and georgia's current territorial dispute with russia.

    georgia is a developing country and ranks 70th on the human development index. the country is a member of the united nations, the council of europe, and the guam organization for democracy and economic development. it contains two de facto independent regions, abkhazia and south ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 russo-georgian war. most of the world's countries consider the regions to be georgian territory under russian occupation.[10]

  • etymology
  • history
  • government and politics
  • administrative divisions
  • geography and climate
  • economy
  • transportation
  • demographics
  • culture
  • international rankings
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • sources
  • external links

Georgia

საქართველო (Georgian)
Sakartvelo
Motto: 
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala Ertobashia
(English: "Strength is in Unity")
Anthem: 
თავისუფლება
Tavisupleba
(English: "Freedom")
Areas under Georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
Areas under Georgian control shown in dark green; areas claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
Location of Georgia
CapitalFlag of Tbilisi.svg Tbilisi
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717; 44.783
Largest cityTbilisi
Official languagesGeorgian (nationwide)
Abkhazian (Abkhazian AR)[1][2]
Ethnic groups
(2014[a])
86.8% Georgians
  6.2% Azerbaijanis
  4.5% Armenians
  2.8% other
Religion
Demonym(s)Georgian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Salome Zurabishvili
Archil Talakvadze
Giorgi Gakharia
LegislatureParliament
Establishment history
• Colchis and Iberia
13th c. BC – 580 AD
786–1008
1008
1463–1810

12 September 1801

26 May 1918
25 February 1921
• Independence from the Soviet Union
Declared
Finalized


9 April 1991
25 December 1991
24 August 1995
Area
• Total
69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)
Population
• 2019 estimate
3,723,464[a][3] (129th)
• 2014 census
3,713,804[a][4]
• Density
53.5/km2 (138.6/sq mi) (137th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$46.05 billion[5] (112th)
• Per capita
$12,409[5] (101st)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$17.83 billion[5] (118st)
• Per capita
$4,285[6] (107th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 36.4[7]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.786[8]
high · 70th
CurrencyGeorgian lari (₾) (GEL)
Time zoneUTC+4 (GET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+995
ISO 3166 codeGE
Internet TLD.ge www.gov.ge
  1. ^ Data not including occupied territories.

Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, translit.: sakartvelo, IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] (About this soundlisten)), known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს რესპუბლიკა, translit.: sakartvelos resp'ublik'a), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary parliamentary republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia. The Georgians officially adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The Georgian Orthodox Church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. The unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire and successive dynasties of Iran. In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion through the course of the 19th century.

During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation that, in 1922, would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the Germans. After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956.

By the 1980s, an independence movement was established and grew, leading to Georgia's secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; aimed at NATO and European integration, it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms. This brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia.

Georgia is a developing country and ranks 70th on the Human Development Index. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation.[10]