## Gini coefficient |

in

, theeconomics **gini coefficient**( /i ), sometimes called thejee-nee **gini index**or**gini ratio**, is a intended to represent themeasure of statistical dispersion orincome of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement ofwealth distribution . it was developed by the italianinequality andstatistician sociologist and published in his 1912 papercorrado gini *variability and mutability*( :italian *variabilità e mutabilità*).^{[1]}^{[2]}the gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a

(for example, levels offrequency distribution ). a gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income). a gini coefficient of one (or 100%) expresses maximal inequality among values (e.g., for a large number of people, where only one person has all the income or consumption, and all others have none, the gini coefficient will be very nearly one).income ^{[3]}^{[4]}for larger groups, values close to one are very unlikely in practice. given the normalization of both the cumulative population and the cumulative share of income used to calculate the gini coefficient, the measure is not overly sensitive to the specifics of the income distribution, but rather only on how incomes vary relative to the other members of a population. the exception to this is in the resulting in a minimum income for all people. when the population is sorted, if their income distribution were to approximate a well-known function, then some representative values could be calculated.redistribution of income the gini coefficient was proposed by gini as a measure of

ofinequality orincome .wealth ^{[5]}for , in the late 20th century, considering the effect of taxes andoecd countries , the income gini coefficient ranged between 0.24 and 0.49, with slovenia being the lowest and mexico the highest.transfer payments ^{[6]}african countries had the highest pre-tax gini coefficients in 2008–2009, with south africa the world's highest, variously estimated to be 0.63 to 0.7,^{[7]}^{[8]}although this figure drops to 0.52 after social assistance is taken into account, and drops again to 0.47 after taxation.^{[9]}the global income gini coefficient in 2005 has been estimated to be between 0.61 and 0.68 by various sources.^{[10]}^{[11]}there are some issues in interpreting a gini coefficient. the same value may result from many different distribution curves. the demographic structure should be taken into account. countries with an aging population, or with a baby boom, experience an increasing pre-tax gini coefficient even if real income distribution for working adults remains constant. scholars have devised over a dozen variants of the gini coefficient.

^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]}- definition
- calculation
- generalized inequality indices
- of income distributions
- of social development
- features
- countries by gini index
- limitations
- alternatives
- relation to other statistical measures
- other uses
- see also
- references
- further reading
- external links

In **Gini coefficient** (**Gini index** or **Gini ratio**, is a *Variability and Mutability* (*Variabilità e mutabilità*).^{[1]}^{[2]}

The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a ^{[3]}^{[4]} For larger groups, values close to one are very unlikely in practice. Given the normalization of both the cumulative population and the cumulative share of income used to calculate the Gini coefficient, the measure is not overly sensitive to the specifics of the income distribution, but rather only on how incomes vary relative to the other members of a population. The exception to this is in the

The Gini coefficient was proposed by Gini as a measure of ^{[5]} For ^{[6]} African countries had the highest pre-tax Gini coefficients in 2008–2009, with South Africa the world's highest, variously estimated to be 0.63 to 0.7,^{[7]}^{[8]} although this figure drops to 0.52 after social assistance is taken into account, and drops again to 0.47 after taxation.^{[9]} The global income Gini coefficient in 2005 has been estimated to be between 0.61 and 0.68 by various sources.^{[10]}^{[11]}

There are some issues in interpreting a Gini coefficient. The same value may result from many different distribution curves. The demographic structure should be taken into account. Countries with an aging population, or with a baby boom, experience an increasing pre-tax Gini coefficient even if real income distribution for working adults remains constant. Scholars have devised over a dozen variants of the Gini coefficient.^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]}