Throughout Wikipedia, the pronunciation of words is indicated by means of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The following tables list the IPA symbols used for English words and pronunciations. Please note that several of these symbols are used in ways that are specific to Wikipedia and differ from those used by dictionaries.

If the IPA symbols are not displayed properly by your browser, see the links below.

If you are adding a pronunciation using this key, such pronunciations should generally be formatted using the template {{IPAc-en}}. The template provides tooltips for each symbol in the pronunciation. See the template page for instructions.


If the words given as examples for two different symbols sound the same to you (for example, if you pronounce cot and caught the same, or do and dew, or marry and merry), you can pronounce those symbols the same in explanations of all words. The footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also Dialect variation below.)

If there is an IPA symbol you are looking for that you do not see here, see Help:IPA, which is a more complete list. For a table listing all spellings of the sounds on this page, see English orthography § Sound-to-spelling correspondences. For help converting spelling to pronunciation, see English orthography § Spelling-to-sound correspondences.

IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, ladder[1]
dj dew[2]
giant, badge
ð thy, breathe, father
f fan, leaf
ɡ guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw whine[3]
j[4] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal[5]
lj lute[2]
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
nj new[2]
ŋ sang, sink, singer
p pie, spy, cap
r[6] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
sj consume[2]
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, latter[1]
tj tune[2]
China, catch
θ thigh, math
θj enthuse[2]
v vine, leave
w wine, swine
z zoo, has
zj Zeus[2]
ʒ pleasure, beige[7]
Marginal segments
IPA Examples
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[8]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
ɒ̃ bon vivant[9]
æ̃ fin de siècle[9]
ɜː Möbius (UK only)[10]
Strong vowels ...followed by R[11]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ɑː PALM, bra ɑːr START
ɒ LOT, blockade[12] ɒr moral[13]
æ TRAP, tattoo[14] ær marry[15]
PRICE, pie[16] aɪər hire[17]
aɪ.ər higher[18]
MOUTH, how[16] aʊər flour[17]
aʊ.ər flower[18]
ɛ DRESS, prestige[19] ɛr merry[15]
FACE ɛər SQUARE, Mary[15][20]
eɪər player[18]
ɪ KIT, historic[21] ɪr mirror
FLEECE, pedigree, idea[22] ɪər NEAR, serious[20]
iːər freer
GOAT[23][21] oʊər mower
ɔː THOUGHT[24] ɔːr NORTH, FORCE[25]
ɔːər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE ɔɪər coir[17]
ɔɪ.ər employer[18]
ʊ FOOT ʊr courier
GOOSE, cruel[22] ʊər tour, CURE (/ˈkjʊər/)[20][26]
uːər truer
ʌ STRUT, untidy, justiciable[27][28] ɜːr NURSE, blurry, Ernesto, foreword[29]
ʌr hurry[30]
Weak vowels
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ə COMMA, about ər LETTER, forward, history[31]
ɪ edition, rabbit, Latin, heating[21][32] motto, retroactive, follower[21][33]
i HAPPY, mediocre[34] California[35]
u fruition[33][34] influence[36]
Syllabic consonants[31]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩]) ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
Stress[37] Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/ . /ˈhaɪər/ hire, /ˈhaɪ.ər/ higher[38]
/ˈtæks.peɪər/ taxpayer


  • Words in SMALL CAPITALS are the standard lexical sets. Words in the lexical sets BATH and CLOTH may be given two transcriptions, the former either with /ɑː/ or /æ/, the latter with /ɒ/ or /ɔː/.
  • The length mark ⟨ː⟩ does not mean that the vowels transcribed with it are always longer than those without it. When unstressed, followed by a voiceless consonant, or in a polysyllabic word, a vowel in the former group is frequently shorter than the latter in other environments (see Clipping (phonetics) § English).