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Anti-Spanish sentiment or Hispanophobia (from
Early instances of Hispanophobia arose as the influence of the
The legend first arose amid the religious strife and imperial rivalries of 16th-century Europe.
Northern Europeans, who loathed Catholic Spainand envied its Americanempire, published books and gory engravings which depicted Spanish colonizationas uniquely barbarous: an orgy of greed, slaughter and papist depravity, the Inquisition writ large.
La leyenda negra, as Spanish historians first named it, entailed a view of Spaniards as "unusually cruel, avaricious, treacherous, fanatical, superstitious, hot-blooded, corrupt, decadent, indolent, and authoritarian". As Spain and England colonized the Americas, "[t]he Black Legend informed Anglo Americans' judgments about the political, economic, religious, and social forces that had shaped the Spanish provinces from Florida to California, as well as throughout the hemisphere". These judgments were handed down from Europeans who saw the Spaniards as inferior to other European cultures.
[I]n North America a deep current of Hispanophobia pervades Anglo-Saxon culture. ... As early as the late seventeenth century, we find
Puritandivines like Cotton Matherand Samuel Sewell studying Spanish—with a view to winning converts to their version of Protestantism. Sewell spoke of "bombing [sic] Santo Domingo, Havana, Puerto Rico, and Mexicoitself" with the Spanish Bible, and Cotton Mather even wrote a book on Protestant doctrine in Spanish, published in Boston in 1699, intended for—as he might say—the darker regions of Spanish America.
In the United States during the early 20th century,
In essence, the Texas rebellion had been little more than a struggle for political and economic power, but early
Texashistorians elevated the revolt against Mexico to a 'sublime collision of moral influences', a 'moral struggle,' and 'a war for principles'. ... Hispanophobia, with its particularly vitriolic anti-Mexican variant, also served as a convenient rationale to keep Mexicans'in their place.'
Throughout the 20th century, an array of mostly political and economic forces drove