History of sociology

  • sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of the enlightenment thought, shortly after the french revolution, as a positivist science of society. its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. social analysis in a broader sense, however, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and necessarily pre-dates the field. modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, capitalism, urbanization, rationalization, secularization, colonization and imperialism. late-19th-century sociology demonstrated a particularly strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state; its constituent institutions, its units of socialization, and its means of surveillance. an emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the enlightenment, often distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy.[1]

    various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments, businesses, and organizations, and have also found use in the other social sciences. divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology. similarly, "social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, interaction, society or culture.[2]

  • precursors
  • classical origins
  • foundation of the academic discipline
  • 19th century: from positivism to antipositivism
  • 20th century: critical theory, postmodernism, and positivist revival
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading

Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of the Enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. Social analysis in a broader sense, however, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and necessarily pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, capitalism, urbanization, rationalization, secularization, colonization and imperialism. Late-19th-century sociology demonstrated a particularly strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state; its constituent institutions, its units of socialization, and its means of surveillance. An emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment, often distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy.[1]

Various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments, businesses, and organizations, and have also found use in the other social sciences. Divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology. Similarly, "social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, interaction, society or culture.[2]