Hominidae

  • hominidae[1]
    temporal range: miocenepresent, 17–0 ma
    preЄ
    Є
    o
    s
    d
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    p
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    j
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    pg
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    hominidae (extant species).jpg
    the eight extant hominid species, one row per genus
    scientific classification e
    kingdom: animalia
    phylum: chordata
    class: mammalia
    order: primates
    suborder: haplorhini
    infraorder: simiiformes
    parvorder: catarrhini
    superfamily: hominoidea
    family: hominidae
    gray, 1825
    type genus
    homo
    linnaeus, 1758
    subfamilies
    • ponginae
    • homininae

    sister: hylobatidae

    synonyms
    • pongidae elliot, 1913
    • gorillidae frechkop, 1943
    • panidae ciochon, 1983

    the hominidae (/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids (z/), are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: pongo, the bornean, sumatran and tapanuli orangutan; gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and homo, of whom only modern humans remain, with several extinct relatives (e.g., the neanderthal) and ancestors, such as homo erectus.[1]

    several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. the original meaning of "hominid" referred only to humans (homo) and their closest extinct relatives. that restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (pan). the current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. usage still varies, however, and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense; the scholarly literature generally shows the traditional usage until around the turn of the 21st century.[4]

    within the taxon hominidae, a number of extant and known extinct, that is, fossil, genera are grouped with the humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas in the subfamily homininae; others with orangutans in the subfamily ponginae (see classification graphic below). the most recent common ancestor of all hominidae lived roughly 14 million years ago,[5] when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestral line of the other three genera.[6] those ancestors of the family hominidae had already speciated from the family hylobatidae (the gibbons), perhaps 15 million to 20 million years ago.[6][7]

    due to the close genetic relationship between humans and the other great apes, certain animal rights organizations, such as the great ape project, argue that nonhuman great apes are persons and should be given basic human rights. 29 countries have already instituted a research ban to protect great apes from any kind of scientific testing.

  • evolution and taxonomy
  • physical description
  • legal status
  • conservation
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Hominidae[1]
Temporal range: Miocenepresent, 17–0 Ma
Hominidae (extant species).jpg
The eight extant hominid species, one row per genus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Gray, 1825
Type genus
Homo
Linnaeus, 1758
Subfamilies

sister: Hylobatidae

Synonyms
  • Pongidae Elliot, 1913
  • Gorillidae Frechkop, 1943
  • Panidae Ciochon, 1983

The Hominidae (/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids (z/), are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, of whom only modern humans remain, with several extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal) and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.[1]

Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. The original meaning of "hominid" referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies, however, and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense; the scholarly literature generally shows the traditional usage until around the turn of the 21st century.[4]

Within the taxon Hominidae, a number of extant and known extinct, that is, fossil, genera are grouped with the humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas in the subfamily Homininae; others with orangutans in the subfamily Ponginae (see classification graphic below). The most recent common ancestor of all Hominidae lived roughly 14 million years ago,[5] when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestral line of the other three genera.[6] Those ancestors of the family Hominidae had already speciated from the family Hylobatidae (the gibbons), perhaps 15 million to 20 million years ago.[6][7]

Due to the close genetic relationship between humans and the other great apes, certain animal rights organizations, such as the Great Ape Project, argue that nonhuman great apes are persons and should be given basic human rights. 29 countries have already instituted a research ban to protect great apes from any kind of scientific testing.