Iraq

  • republic of iraq

    • جمهورية العراق (arabic)
    • کۆماری عێراق (sorani kurdish)
    • komara iraqê (kurmanji kurdish)
    flag of iraq
    flag
    coat of arms of iraq
    coat of arms
    motto: الله أكبر (arabic)
    "allāhu akbar(transliteration)
    "god is the greatest"
    anthem: "mawṭinī"
    "موطني"
    (english: "my homeland")
    location of iraq
    capital
    and largest city
    baghdad
    33°20′n 44°23′e / 33°20′n 44°23′e / 33.333; 44.383
    official languages
    • arabic
    • kurdish
    recognised regional languages
    • mandaic
    • shabaki
    • persian
    • other recognized languages
    • turkish
    • assyrian
    • armenian
    religion
    islam
    demonym(s)iraqi
    governmentfederal parliamentary constitutional republic
    • president
    barham salih
    • prime minister
    mohammed tawfiq allawi[1]
    • speaker
    mohamed al-halbousi
    • chief justice
    medhat al-mahmoud
    legislaturecouncil of representatives
    independence from the united kingdom
    • kingdom of iraq
    3 october 1932
    • republic declared
    14 july 1958
    • current constitution
    15 october 2005
    area
    • total
    437,072 km2 (168,754 sq mi) (58th)
    • water (%)
    1.1
    population
    • 2018 estimate
    38,433,600[2][3] (36th)
    • density
    82.7/km2 (214.2/sq mi) (125th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    $733.926 billion[4] (34th)
    • per capita
    $17,952[4] (76th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    $250.070 billion[4] (48th)
    • per capita
    $6,116[4] (97th)
    gini (2012)29.5[5]
    low
    hdi (2018)increase 0.689[6]
    medium · 120th
    currencyiraqi dinar (iqd)
    time zoneutc+3 (ast)
    driving sideright
    calling code+964
    iso 3166 codeiq
    internet tld.iq
    1. constitution of iraq, article 4 (1st).

    iraq (k/, k/ (about this soundlisten) or k/; arabic: اَلْعِرَاق‎, al-ʿirāq; kurdish: عێراقÊraq), officially the republic of iraq (arabic: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاقِabout this soundjumhūriyyah al-ʿirāq; kurdish: کۆماری عێراقkomarî Êraq), is a country in western asia, bordered by turkey to the north, iran to the east, kuwait to the southeast, saudi arabia to the south, jordan to the southwest and syria to the west. the capital, and largest city, is baghdad. iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including arabs, kurds, assyrians, turkmen, shabakis, yazidis, armenians, mandeans, circassians and kawliya.[7] around 99% of the country's 38 million citizens are muslims,[8] with tiny minorities of christians, yarsans, yezidis and mandeans also present. the official languages of iraq are arabic and kurdish.

    iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern persian gulf and encompasses the mesopotamian alluvial plain, the northwestern end of the zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the syrian desert.[9] two major rivers, the tigris and euphrates, run south through iraq and into the shatt al-arab near the persian gulf. these rivers provide iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.

    the region between the tigris and euphrates rivers, historically known as mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. it was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably uruk, from which "iraq" is derived. the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium bc. iraq was the centre of the akkadian, sumerian, assyrian and babylonian empires. it was also part of the median, achaemenid, hellenistic, parthian, sassanid, roman, rashidun, umayyad, abbasid, ayyubid, seljuk, mongol, timurid, safavid, afsharid and ottoman empires.[10]

    the country today known as iraq was a region of the ottoman empire until the partition of the ottoman empire in the 20th century. it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the ottoman language: mosul vilayet, baghdad vilayet, and basra vilayet. in april 1920 the british mandate of mesopotamia was created under the authority of the league of nations. a british-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one kingdom was established in 1921 under faisal i of iraq. the hashemite kingdom of iraq gained independence from the uk in 1932. in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the iraqi republic created. iraq was controlled by the arab socialist ba'ath party from 1968 until 2003. after an invasion by the united states and its allies in 2003, saddam hussein's ba'ath party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. the us presence in iraq ended in 2011,[11] but the iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the syrian civil war spilled into the country. out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself isil, which took large parts of the north and west. it has since been largely defeated. disputes over the sovereignty of kurdistan region continue. a referendum about the full sovereignty of kurdistan region was held on 25 september 2017. on 9 december 2017, then-iraqi prime minister haider al-abadi declared victory over isil after the group lost its territory in iraq.[12]

    iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates (provinces) and one autonomous region (kurdistan region). the country's official religion is islam. culturally, iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-islamic as well as post-islamic times and is known for its poets. its painters and sculptors are among the best in the arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. iraq is a founding member of the un as well as of the arab league, oic, non-aligned movement and the imf.

  • name
  • history
  • geography
  • government and politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • technology
  • see also
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Republic of Iraq

Motto: الله أكبر (Arabic)
"Allāhu Akbar(transliteration)
"God is the Greatest"
Anthem: "Mawṭinī"
"موطني"
(English: "My Homeland")
Location of Iraq
Capital
and largest city
Baghdad
33°20′N 44°23′E / 33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333; 44.383
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
  • Other Recognized languages
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s)Iraqi
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Barham Salih
Mohammed Tawfiq Allawi[1]
• Speaker
Mohamed al-Halbousi
Medhat al-Mahmoud
LegislatureCouncil of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
3 October 1932
14 July 1958
15 October 2005
Area
• Total
437,072 km2 (168,754 sq mi) (58th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2018 estimate
38,433,600[2][3] (36th)
• Density
82.7/km2 (214.2/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$733.926 billion[4] (34th)
• Per capita
$17,952[4] (76th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$250.070 billion[4] (48th)
• Per capita
$6,116[4] (97th)
Gini (2012)29.5[5]
low
HDI (2018)Increase 0.689[6]
medium · 120th
CurrencyIraqi dinar (IQD)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+964
ISO 3166 codeIQ
Internet TLD.iq
  1. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 (1st).

Iraq (k/, k/ (About this soundlisten) or k/; Arabic: اَلْعِرَاق‎, al-ʿirāq; Kurdish: عێراقÊraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاقِAbout this soundJumhūriyyah al-ʿIrāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراقKomarî Êraq), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.[7] Around 99% of the country's 38 million citizens are Muslims,[8] with tiny minorities of Christians, Yarsans, Yezidis and Mandeans also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert.[9] Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.

The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian empires. It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.[10]

The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century. It was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, and Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The US presence in Iraq ended in 2011,[11] but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Kurdistan Region continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Kurdistan Region was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq.[12]

Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates (provinces) and one autonomous region (Kurdistan Region). The country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF.