Jainism

  • jainism (əm/),[1] traditionally known as jain dharma, is an ancient indian religion.[2] followers of jainism are called "jains", a word derived from the sanskrit word jina (victor) referring to the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths by destroying karma through an ethical and spiritual life.[3] jainism is a transtheistic religion,[4] and jains trace their spiritual ideas and history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being rishabhanatha, who according to jain tradition lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara parshvanatha in 900 bce, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara the mahāvīra around 500 bce. jains believe that jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the jain cosmology. their religious texts are called agamas.

    the main religious premises of jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (many-sidedness), aparigraha (non-attachment) and asceticism. devout jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (celibacy or chastity or sexual continence), and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). these principles have affected jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. parasparopagraho jīvānām (the function of souls is to help one another) is the motto of jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most common and basic prayer in jainism.[5]

    jainism has two major ancient sub-traditions, digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; several smaller sub-traditions emerged in the 2nd millennium ce. the digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices, gender and which jain texts can be considered canonical. jain mendicants are found in all jain sub-traditions except kanji panth sub-tradition, with laypersons (śrāvakas) supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources.

    jainism has between four and five million followers, with most jains residing in india.[6] outside india, some of the largest jain communities are present in canada, europe, kenya, the united kingdom, hong kong, suriname, fiji, and the united states. jainism is also growing in japan, where more than 5,000 ethnic japanese families have converted to jainism.[7] major jain festivals include paryushana and daslakshana, ashtanika, mahavir janma kalyanak, and dipawali.

  • main principles
  • practices
  • traditions and sects
  • beliefs and philosophy
  • scriptures and texts
  • comparison with buddhism and hinduism
  • art and architecture
  • history
  • jains in the modern era
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Jainism (əm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.[2] Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) referring to the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths by destroying karma through an ethical and spiritual life.[3] Jainism is a transtheistic religion,[4] and Jains trace their spiritual ideas and history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third Tirthankara Parshvanatha in 900 BCE, and the twenty-fourth Tirthankara the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. Their religious texts are called Agamas.

The main religious premises of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (many-sidedness), aparigraha (non-attachment) and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (celibacy or chastity or sexual continence), and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). These principles have affected Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (the function of souls is to help one another) is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most common and basic prayer in Jainism.[5]

Jainism has two major ancient sub-traditions, Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; Several smaller sub-traditions emerged in the 2nd millennium CE. The Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices, gender and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons (śrāvakas) supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources.

Jainism has between four and five million followers, with most Jains residing in India.[6] Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Europe, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname, Fiji, and the United States. Jainism is also growing in Japan, where more than 5,000 ethnic Japanese families have converted to Jainism.[7] Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Ashtanika, Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, and Dipawali.