juliana in 1981
|queen of the netherlands|
|reign||4 september 1948 – 30 april 1980|
|inauguration||6 september 1948|
|prime ministers||see list|
|born||30 april 1909|
noordeinde palace, the hague, netherlands
|died||20 march 2004 (aged 94)|
soestdijk palace, baarn, netherlands
|burial||30 march 2004|nieuwe kerk
|spouse|prince bernhard of lippe-biesterfeld
|issue||beatrix of the netherlands |
|juliana louise emma marie wilhelmina|
|house||orange-nassau (official) |
|father||duke henry of mecklenburg-schwerin|
|mother||wilhelmina of the netherlands|
|religion||dutch reformed church|
juliana (dutch pronunciation: [ˌjyliˈjaːnaː]); juliana louise emma marie wilhelmina; (30 april 1909 – 20 march 2004) was queen of the netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.
juliana was the only child of queen wilhelmina and prince henry of mecklenburg-schwerin. she received a private education and studied international law at the university of leiden. in 1937, she married prince bernhard of lippe-biesterfeld with whom she had four children: beatrix, irene, margriet, and christina. during the german invasion of the netherlands in the second world war, the royal family was evacuated to the united kingdom. juliana proceeded to relocate to canada with her children, while wilhelmina and bernhard remained in britain. the royal family returned to the netherlands after its liberation in 1945.
due to wilhelmina's failing health, juliana took over royal duties briefly in 1947 and 1948. in september 1948 wilhelmina abdicated and juliana ascended to the dutch throne. her reign saw the decolonization and independence of the dutch east indies (now indonesia) and suriname. despite a series of controversies involving the royal family, juliana remained a popular figure among the dutch.
in april 1980, juliana abdicated in favour of her eldest daughter beatrix. upon her death in 2004 at the age of 94, she was the longest-lived former reigning monarch in the world.