Karl Marx

  • karl marx

    frsa[1]
    karl marx 001.jpg
    karl marx in 1875
    born(1818-05-05)5 may 1818
    trier, prussia, german confederation
    died14 march 1883(1883-03-14) (aged 64)
    london, england
    buried
    tomb of karl marx, highgate cemetery, london, england
    nationality
    • prussian (1818–1845)
    • stateless (after 1845)
    spouse(s)
    jenny von westphalen
    (m. 1843; died 1881)
    children7, including jenny, laura, and eleanor
    parents
    • heinrich marx (father)
    • henriette pressburg (mother)
    relatives
    • louise juta (sister)
    • jean longuet (grandson)

    philosophy career
    alma mater
    • university of bonn
    • university of berlin
    • university of jena (phd)[2]
    era19th-century philosophy
    regionwestern philosophy
    school
    • continental philosophy
    • marxism
    • correspondence theory of truth[3]
    main interests
    philosophy, economics, history, politics
    notable ideas
    marxist terminology, surplus value, contributions to the labour theory of value, class struggle, alienation and exploitation of the worker, materialist conception of history
    signature
    karl marx signature.svg

    karl marx[note 1] (german: [ˈkaʁl ˈmaʁks];[13][14] 5 may 1818 – 14 march 1883) was a german philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

    born in trier, germany, marx studied law and philosophy at university. he married jenny von westphalen in 1843. due to his political publications, marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in london for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with german thinker friedrich engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the british museum. his best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, the communist manifesto, and the three-volume das kapital. his political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic and political history, and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory.

    marx's critical theories about society, economics and politics – collectively understood as marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. in capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.[15] employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system known as socialism.

    for marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.[16] marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.[17]

    marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been both lauded and criticised.[18] his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.[19][20][21] many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science.[22][23]

  • biography
  • personal life
  • thought
  • legacy
  • selected bibliography
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 001.jpg
Karl Marx in 1875
Born(1818-05-05)5 May 1818
Died14 March 1883(1883-03-14) (aged 64)
London, England
Buried
Nationality
Spouse(s)
Jenny von Westphalen
(m. 1843; died 1881)
Children7, including Jenny, Laura, and Eleanor
Parents
Relatives

Philosophy career
Alma mater
Era19th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
School
Main interests
Philosophy, economics, history, politics
Notable ideas
Marxist terminology, surplus value, contributions to the labour theory of value, class struggle, alienation and exploitation of the worker, materialist conception of history
Signature
Karl Marx Signature.svg

Karl Marx[note 1] (German: [ˈkaʁl ˈmaʁks];[13][14] 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university. He married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic and political history, and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory.

Marx's critical theories about society, economics and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.[15] Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system known as socialism.

For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.[16] Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.[17]

Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been both lauded and criticised.[18] His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.[19][20][21] Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science.[22][23]