Kashmiri language

कॉशुर, كٲشُر
Native toIndia, Pakistan
RegionJammu and Kashmir,[1] Azad Kashmir
Native speakers
7 million (2011 census)[2]
  • Kashtawari (standard)
  • Poguli
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary),[3]
Devanagari (contemporary),[3]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[3]
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3kas
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Kashmiri (English: i/)[6] or Koshur (English: r/; कॉशुर, كٲشُر),[7] is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian territory of Jammu and Kashmir. There are also speakers in parts of the neighbouring Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir.

Although the official language of Jammu and Kashmir is Urdu, Kashmiri is recognised as a regional language in the state and is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Geographic distribution and status

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[8] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.[9] There are also about 130,000 speakers in the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir, primary concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys, and in the district of Haveli.[10][11]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India,[12] and is a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state.[13] Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language.[1] Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.[14]