Kosovo War

  • kosovo war
    part of the yugoslav wars[2]
    kosovo war header.jpg
    clockwise from top-left: yugoslav general staff headquarters damaged by nato air strikes; a zastava koral buried under rubble caused by nato air strikes; memorial to local kla commanders; a usaf f-15e taking off from aviano air base
    datefebruary 1998 – 11 june 1999
    location
    kosovo (then part of yugoslavia) and albania (albanian & osce claim)[3][4][5][6]
    result

    kumanovo treaty

    • yugoslav forces pull out of kosovo
    • united nations resolution 1244[7]
    • return of albanian refugees
    • expulsion of over half of the serb and other non-albanian civilians[a]
    • kla veterans join the uÇpmb, starting the preševo insurgency
    • bulldozer revolution in 2000
    territorial
    changes
    no legal changes to yugoslav borders according to the resolution 1244, but effective political and economic separation of kosovo from yugoslavia due to being placed under un administration and subsequent declaration of independence
    belligerents

    kosovo liberation army kla


     yugoslavia
    commanders and leaders

    logo of the kosovo liberation army adem jashari 
    logo of the kosovo liberation army hashim thaçi
    logo of the kosovo liberation army bilall syla
    logo of the kosovo liberation army hamëz jashari 
    logo of the kosovo liberation army sylejman selimi
    logo of the kosovo liberation army ramush haradinaj
    logo of the kosovo liberation army agim Çeku


    nato wesley clark


    albania kudusi lama [13]

    federal republic of yugoslavia slobodan milošević
    dragoljub ojdanić
    nebojša pavković
    vlastimir Đorđević[14]

    vladimir lazarević[15]
    sreten lukić
    strength

    logo of the kosovo liberation army 17,000–20,000 kla insurgents[16]


    nato cca. 80 aircraft
    (operation eagle eye)[17]
    nato 1,031 aircraft
    (operation allied force)[18]
    nato 30+ warships and submarines[19]

    federal republic of yugoslavia 85,000 soldiers[20] (including 40,000 in and around kosovo)[19]
    federal republic of yugoslavia 20,000 policemen
    federal republic of yugoslavia 100 sam sites[19]
    federal republic of yugoslavia 1,400 artillery pieces
    (both ground & air defence)[19]
    federal republic of yugoslavia 240 aircraft [19]
    federal republic of yugoslavia 2,032 armoured vehicles & tanks[19]
    serbian paramilitary units (Šakali, Škorpioni), unknown number

    russia russian volunteers, unknown number [21][22]
    casualties and losses

    logo of the kosovo liberation army 1,500 insurgents killed (per the kla)[23]
    logo of the kosovo liberation army 2,131 insurgents killed (per the hlc)[24]


    united states 2 killed (non-combat) and 3 captured[25][26]
    united states 2 aircraft shot down and 3 damaged[27][28][29][30]
    united states two ah-64 apaches and an av-8b harrier crashed (non-combat)[31]
    nato 47 uavs shot down[32]

    france possible unknown number of dgse officers killed[33]

    caused by kla:
    300+ soldiers killed (per the yugoslav military)[34]
    caused by nato:
    federal republic of yugoslavia 1,008–1,200 killed[b]
    14 tanks,[39] 18 apcs, 20 artillery pieces[40] and 121 aircraft and helicopters destroyed[41]

    caused by kla and nato:
    1,084 killed (per the hlc)[24]

    albania 8,676 kosovar albanian civilians killed or missing[24]
    albania 90% of kosovar albanians displaced during the war[42] (848,000–863,000 expelled from kosovo,[43][44][45] 590,000 kosovar albanians displaced within kosovo)[42]
    1,641[24]–2,500[46] serb and other non-albanian civilians killed or missing (445 roma and others)[24]
    230,000 kosovo serbs, romani and other non-albanian civilians displaced[47]
    /albania civilian deaths caused by nato bombing: 489–528 (per human rights watch)[48] or 453–2,500 (per the hlc and tanjug);[24][46] also includes china 3 chinese journalists killed

    13,548 civilians and fighters dead overall (albanians, serbs, bosniaks, roma)[49]

    the kosovo war was an armed conflict in kosovo that started in late february 1998[50][51] and lasted until 11 june 1999.[52] it was fought by the forces of the federal republic of yugoslavia (i.e. serbia and montenegro), which controlled kosovo before the war, and the kosovo albanian rebel group known as the kosovo liberation army (kla), with air support from the north atlantic treaty organisation (nato) from 24 march 1999, and ground support from the albanian army.[53]

    the kla, formed in the early 1990s to fight against serbian persecution of kosovo albanians,[54] initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks against serbian law enforcement in kosovo. in june 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting kosovo police stations. in 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. in early 1998, kla attacks targeting yugoslav authorities in kosovo resulted in an increased presence of serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting kla sympathisers and political opponents;[55] this campaign killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and kla combatants.[56][57]

    after attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, nato intervened, justifying the campaign in kosovo as a "humanitarian war".[58] this precipitated a mass expulsion of kosovar albanians as the yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of yugoslavia (march–june 1999).[59][60] by 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities,[61] and in 2001 a united nations administered supreme court, based in kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the albanian population.[62]

    the war ended with the kumanovo treaty, with yugoslav and serb forces[63] agreeing to withdraw from kosovo to make way for an international presence.[64][65] the kosovo liberation army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the uÇpmb in the preševo valley[66] and others joining the national liberation army (nla) and albanian national army (ana) during the armed ethnic conflict in macedonia,[67] while others went on to form the kosovo police.[68] after the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict.[69] the yugoslav and serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million[70] to 1.45 million kosovo albanians.[71] after the war, around 200,000 serbs, romani and other non-albanians fled kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[72] serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in europe.[73][74]

    the nato bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the un security council and because it caused at least 488 yugoslav civilian deaths,[75] including substantial numbers of kosovar refugees.[76][77]

  • background
  • eruption of war
  • nato bombing timeline
  • yugoslav army withdrawal and the entry of kfor
  • reaction to the war
  • democratic league of kosovo and fark
  • casualties
  • war crimes
  • international reaction to nato intervention
  • military and political consequences
  • military decorations
  • weaponry and vehicles used
  • see also
  • gallery
  • footnotes
  • references
  • external links

Kosovo War
Part of the Yugoslav Wars[2]
Kosovo War header.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Yugoslav general staff headquarters damaged by NATO air strikes; a Zastava Koral buried under rubble caused by NATO air strikes; memorial to local KLA commanders; a USAF F-15E taking off from Aviano Air Base
DateFebruary 1998 – 11 June 1999
Location
Kosovo (then part of Yugoslavia) and Albania (Albanian & OSCE Claim)[3][4][5][6]
Result

Kumanovo Treaty

Territorial
changes
No legal changes to Yugoslav borders according to the Resolution 1244, but effective political and economic separation of Kosovo from Yugoslavia due to being placed under UN administration and subsequent declaration of independence
Belligerents

Kosovo Liberation Army KLA


 Yugoslavia
Commanders and leaders

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Adem Jashari 
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Hashim Thaçi
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Bilall Syla
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Hamëz Jashari 
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Sylejman Selimi
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Ramush Haradinaj
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Agim Çeku


NATO Wesley Clark


Albania Kudusi Lama [13]

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević
Dragoljub Ojdanić
Nebojša Pavković
Vlastimir Đorđević[14]

Vladimir Lazarević[15]
Sreten Lukić
Strength

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 17,000–20,000 KLA insurgents[16]


NATO cca. 80 aircraft
(Operation Eagle Eye)[17]
NATO 1,031 aircraft
(Operation Allied Force)[18]
NATO 30+ warships and submarines[19]

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 85,000 soldiers[20] (including 40,000 in and around Kosovo)[19]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 20,000 policemen
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 100 SAM sites[19]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1,400 artillery pieces
(Both ground & air defence)[19]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 240 aircraft [19]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 2,032 armoured vehicles & tanks[19]
Serbian paramilitary units (Šakali, Škorpioni), unknown number

Russia Russian volunteers, unknown number [21][22]
Casualties and losses

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 1,500 insurgents killed (per the KLA)[23]
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 2,131 insurgents killed (per the HLC)[24]


United States 2 killed (non-combat) and 3 captured[25][26]
United States 2 aircraft shot down and 3 damaged[27][28][29][30]
United States Two AH-64 Apaches and an AV-8B Harrier crashed (non-combat)[31]
NATO 47 UAVs shot down[32]

France Possible unknown number of DGSE officers killed[33]

Caused by KLA:
300+ soldiers killed (per the Yugoslav military)[34]
Caused by NATO:
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1,008–1,200 killed[b]
14 tanks,[39] 18 APCs, 20 artillery pieces[40] and 121 aircraft and helicopters destroyed[41]

Caused by KLA and NATO:
1,084 killed (per the HLC)[24]

Albania 8,676 Kosovar Albanian civilians killed or missing[24]
Albania 90% of Kosovar Albanians displaced during the war[42] (848,000–863,000 expelled from Kosovo,[43][44][45] 590,000 Kosovar Albanians displaced within Kosovo)[42]
1,641[24]–2,500[46] Serb and other non-Albanian civilians killed or missing (445 Roma and others)[24]
230,000 Kosovo Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanian civilians displaced[47]
/Albania Civilian deaths caused by NATO bombing: 489–528 (per Human Rights Watch)[48] or 453–2,500 (per the HLC and Tanjug);[24][46] also includes China 3 Chinese journalists killed

13,548 civilians and fighters dead overall (Albanians, Serbs, Bosniaks, Roma)[49]

The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998[50][51] and lasted until 11 June 1999.[52] It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March 1999, and ground support from the Albanian army.[53]

The KLA, formed in the early 1990s to fight against Serbian persecution of Kosovo Albanians,[54] initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks against Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents;[55] this campaign killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and KLA combatants.[56][57]

After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war".[58] This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia (March–June 1999).[59][60] By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities,[61] and in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population.[62]

The war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces[63] agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence.[64][65] The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley[66] and others joining the National Liberation Army (NLA) and Albanian National Army (ANA) during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia,[67] while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.[68] After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict.[69] The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million[70] to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians.[71] After the war, around 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[72] Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in Europe.[73][74]

The NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths,[75] including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees.[76][77]