Laos

Lao People's Democratic Republic

  • ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ  (Lao)
  • Saþalanalat Paxaþipatai Paxaxōn Lao (Romanisation)
  • République démocratique populaire lao  (French)
Motto: "ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນະຖາວອນ"
"Santiphab ekalad pasaþipatai ekaphāb vadþa na þauaōn" (Lao romanisation)
"Paix, indépendance, démocratie, unité et prospérité"
(English: "Peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity")
Anthem: "Pheng Xat Lao"
(English: "Lao National Anthem")
Location Laos ASEAN.svg
Location of Laos (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vientiane
17°58′N 102°36′E / 17°58′N 102°36′E / 17.967; 102.600
Official languagesLao
Recognised languagesFrench[1]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
(2005[2])
Religion
Buddhism 64.7%
Tai folk religion 31.4%
Christianity 1.7%
Islam 0.8%
Other 1.3%
Demonym(s)Lao
Laotian
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic
Bounnhang Vorachith
Phankham Viphavanh
Thongloun Sisoulith
Pany Yathotou
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
1354–1707
• Kingdoms of Luang Phrabang, Vientiane & Champasak
1707-1778
• Vassals of Siam
1778–1893
1893–1953
11 May 1947
22 October 1953
2 December 1975
14 August 1991
• Joined ASEAN
23 July 1997
Area
• Total
237,955 km2 (91,875 sq mi) (82nd)
• Water (%)
2
Population
• Estimate
7,061,507[3][4] (103rd)
• 2015 census
7,096,3766,492,228[5]
• Density
26.7/km2 (69.2/sq mi) (151st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$58.329 billion[6]
• Per capita
$8,458[6]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$20.153 billion[6]
• Per capita
$2,913[6]
Gini (2012)36.4[7]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.604[8]
medium · 140th
CurrencyKip (₭) (LAK)
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+856
ISO 3166 codeLA
Internet TLD.la

Laos (s/ (About this soundlisten),[9] s/;[10][11] Lao: ລາວ, Lāo [láːw]), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, romanizedSaþalanalat Paxaþipatai Paxaxōn Lao; French: République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast, and Thailand to the west and southwest.[12]

Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Kingdom of a Million Elephants Under the White Parasol), which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia.[13] Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally.[13] After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang, Vientiane, and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos. It briefly gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union, fight against, first, the monarchy and then a number of military dictatorships, supported by the United States. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, seeing the end to the civil war. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991.

In 2018, the country had the fourth highest GDP (PPP) per capita in Southeast Asia, after Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand.[14] In the same year, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index (HDI), indicating medium development.[15] Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Asia Summit, and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership.[16] It is a one-party socialist republic, espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

The capital and largest city in Laos is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, and Pakse. The official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong, and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, China, and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours.[17][18] Laos has been referred to as one of Southeast Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade.[clarify][when?][19][20]

Etymology

The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the Lao people.[21]

English speakers sometimes mispronounce "Laos", falsely believing that it should be pronounced with a silent 's'.[22] The 's' in Laos is never silent.[23][24][25]

In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" (ເມືອງລາວ) or "Pathet Lao" (ປະເທດລາວ), both literally mean "Lao Country".[26]