Law for Protection of the Nation

Decree of His Majesty Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria for approval of the law for protection of the nation.

The Law for Protection of the Nation (Bulgarian: Закон за защита на нацията — ЗЗН) was a Bulgarian law, effective from 23 January 1941 to 27 November 1944, which directed measures against Jews and others. The law was passed along the example of the Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany.

The Law ordered measures for:

  • changes in the names of Jews.
  • rules about their place of residence.
  • confiscation of their possessions.
  • their exclusion from the public service.
  • prohibition of economic and professional activity.

Citizens of Jewish origin were also banned from certain public areas, restricted economically, and marriages between Jews and Bulgarians were prohibited. Jews were forced to pay a one-time tax of 20 percent of their net worth.[1][2][3][4] The legislation also established quotas that limited the number of Jews in Bulgarian universities.[4][5]

Jewish leaders protested against the law, and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, some professional organizations, and twenty-one writers also opposed it.[4][6]

The Law also suppressed all Freemasonry lodges and all other secret organizations.

The Law was passed under direct influence from Nazi Germany, but did not lead to the deportation of the Bulgarian Jews to Nazi extermination camps, except for the Jews from former Greek and Yugoslavian territories occupied by Bulgaria.[7]

  • references


  1. ^ Marushiakova, Elena; Vesselin Popov (2006). "Bulgarian Romanies: The Second World War". The Gypsies during the Second World War. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 0-900458-85-2.
  2. ^ Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 69. ISBN 0-313-29879-3.
  3. ^ Wyman, David S.; Charles H. Rosenzveig (1996). The world reacts to the Holocaust. JHU Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-8018-4969-1.
  4. ^ a b c Benbassa, Esther; Aron Rodrigue (2000). Sephardi Jewry: a history of the Judeo-Spanish community, 14th-20th centuries. University of California Press. p. 174. ISBN 0-520-21822-1.
  5. ^ Levin, Itamar; Natasha Dornberg; Judith Yalon-Fortus (2001). His majesty's enemies: Great Britain's war against Holocaust victims and survivors. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 0-275-96816-2.
  6. ^ Levy, Richard S (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 1-85109-439-3.
  7. ^ Dikovski, Antoinette (2000-07-19). "България само администрираше "новите земи"" (in Bulgarian). Демокрация. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2015-03-07.