List of Germanic deities

A scene from one of the Merseburg Incantations: gods Wodan and Balder stand before the goddesses Sunna, Sinthgunt, Volla, and Friia (Emil Doepler, 1905)

In Germanic paganism, the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples who inhabited Germanic Europe, there were a number of different gods and goddesses. Germanic deities are attested from numerous sources, including works of literature, various chronicles, runic inscriptions, personal names, place names, and other sources. This article contains a comprehensive list of Germanic deities outside the numerous Germanic Matres and Matronae inscriptions from the 1st to 5th century CE.

Gods

Name Name meaning Attested consorts and sexual partners Attested children Attestations
Alcis (Latinized Germanic) Contested None attested None attested Germania
Baldr (Old Norse), Bældæg (Old English) Old Norse form is contested. Old English form directly translates as "shining day".[1] Nanna Forseti Merseburg Incantation, Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Gesta Danorum, Chronicon Lethrense, Annales Lundenses, possibly Beowulf
Bragi (Old Norse) Connected with Bragr ("poetry")[2] Iðunn None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, skaldic poetry
Dellingr (Old Norse) Possibly "the dayspring"[3] or "shining one"[4] Nótt Dagr Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Forseti (Old Norse) "Chairman"[5] None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Freyr (Old Norse), Frea (Old English), Yngvi (Old Norse), Ing (Old English) "Lord"[6] Freyja, Gerðr Fjölnir (Heimskringla) Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Heimskringla, Ögmundar þáttr dytts, Gesta Danorum, various others
Heimdallr (Old Norse) "World-brightener"[7] None attested None attested Prose Edda, Poetic Edda
Hermóðr (Old Norse), Heremod (Old English) "War-spirit"[8] None attested Sceaf (Old English only) Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Beowulf, Old English royal genealogies
Höðr (Old Norse) "Warrior"[9] None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Gesta Danorum, Chronicon Lethrense, Annales Lundenses, possibly Beowulf
Hœnir (Old Norse) Contested None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, skaldic poetry
Lóðurr (Old Norse) Contested None attested None attested Poetic Edda, skaldic poetry
Loki (Old Norse) Contested Sigyn, Angrboda Nari/Narfi, Váli, Fenrir, Hel, Jormungandr, and Sleipnir Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Heimskringla, Loka Táttur, Norwegian rune poem, Danish folk tales
Móði and Magni (Old Norse) "Courage" and "Strength" None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Máni (Old Norse) "Moon" None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Mímir (Old Norse) "Rememberer" None attested Sons, unnamed Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Meili (Old Norse) "the lovely one"[10] None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Njörðr (Old Norse) Contested Once unnamed sister, once Skaði Freyr, Freyja Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Heimskringla, Egils saga, Hauksbók ring oath, place names
Odin: Óðinn (North Germanic), Wōden (West Germanic), * Wōðanaz (Proto-Germanic) (see List of names of Odin for more) "Frenzy"[11] Frigg (consort), Skaði (Heimskringla only), Gunnlöð, Jörð, Rindr See Sons of Odin Most attestations of Germanic paganism
Óðr (Old Norse) "The frenzied one"[12] Freyja Hnoss, Gersemi Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Saxnōt (Old Saxon), Seaxnet, Seaxnēat, Saxnat (Old English) Contested None attested None attested Old Saxon Baptismal Vow, Old English royal genealogies
Thor: Þórr (North Germanic), Þunor (Old English), Thunaer (Old Saxon), Donar (Southern Germanic areas) "Thunder", all names stem from Proto-Germanic *ÞunraR[13] Sif (consort), Járnsaxa Móði and Magni, Þrúðr Most attestations of Germanic paganism
Tuisto (Latinized Germanic) "double", from the Proto-Germanic root *twai – "two"; "a god, born of the earth" (deum terra editum) None attested Mannus Germania
Týr (Old Norse), Tīw, Tīg (both Old English), Ziu (Old High German) "God", derived from Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz[14] Unnamed, possibly Zisa Seaxnot Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, skaldic poetry, Hadrian's Wall altar
Ullr (Old Norse) Something like "Glory"[15] None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, skaldic poetry, Gesta Danorum, Thorsberg chape, toponyms in Norway and Sweden
Váli (Old Norse) "Chosen" None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, Gesta Danorum (as Bous)
Viðarr (Old Norse) Possibly "wide ruler"[16] None attested None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
(Old Norse) [17] Possibly Frigg None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda
Vili (Old Norse) "Will"[18] Possibly Frigg None attested Poetic Edda, Prose Edda