Lithuania

Republic of Lithuania

Lietuvos Respublika  (Lithuanian)
Anthem: Tautiška giesmė
(English: "National Hymn")
Locator map of Lithuania
Location of Lithuania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of Lithuania in the World
Location of Lithuania in the World
Capital
and largest city
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683; 25.317
Official languagesLithuanian
Regional
Polish, Russian
Ethnic groups
(census 2011[1])
Demonym(s)Lithuanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[2][3][4][5]
• President
Gitanas Nausėda
Saulius Skvernelis
Viktoras Pranckietis
LegislatureSeimas
Independence
9 March 1009
1236
• Coronation of King Mindaugas
6 July 1253
2 February 1386
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
16 February 1918
15 June 1940
22 June 1941
July 1944
11 March 1990
17 September 1991
• Admitted to NATO
29 March 2004
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi) (121st)
• Water (%)
1.35
Population
• 2019 estimate
Decrease2,793,486[6] (137th)
• Density
43/km2 (111.4/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$102 billion[7] (83rd)
• Per capita
$36,700[7] (38th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$54 billion[7] (80th)
• Per capita
$19,266[7] (42nd)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 36.9[8]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.858[9]
very high · 35th
CurrencyEuro (€) (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+370
ISO 3166 codeLT
Internet TLDwww.lietuva.lt
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Lithuania (ə/ (About this soundlisten) AY-nee-ə;[10] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states.[11] The country is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people. The official language, Lithuanian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family, the other being Latvian.

For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas and the Kingdom of Lithuania was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe;[12] present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were the territories of the Grand Duchy. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.

As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state[13] to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania.

Lithuania is a high-income advanced economy[14][15] with a very high Human Development Index,[16] a very high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, eurozone, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It is also a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, and part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries.

Etymology

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009

The first known record of the name of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva) is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle.[17] The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua[18] (pronounced [litua]). Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions.

Since Lietuva has a suffix (-uva), the original word should have no suffix[citation needed]. A likely candidate is Lietā. Because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Usually, such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym.[19] Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is usually credited as the source of the name.[19] However, the river is very small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such naming is not unprecedented in world history.[20]

Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis,[21] that Lietuva relates to the word leičiai (plural of leitis). From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself. The word leičiai is used in the 14–16th century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians (but not Samogitians) and is still used, usually poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, which is closely related to Lithuanian.[22][23]