## Mathematics |

**Mathematics** (from *máthēma*, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as ^{[1]} ^{[2]} ^{[1]} and ^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]} It has no generally accepted ^{[6]}^{[7]}

Mathematicians seek and use ^{[8]}^{[9]} to formulate new

* Elements*. Since the pioneering work of

Mathematics is essential in many fields, including ^{[11]}^{[12]}

- history
- definitions of mathematics
- inspiration, pure and applied mathematics, and aesthetics
- notation, language, and rigor
- fields of mathematics
- mathematical awards
- see also
- notes
- references
- bibliography
- further reading

The history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of ^{[13]} was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.

As evidenced by ^{[14]}

Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 ^{[15]} The most ancient mathematical texts from ^{[16]}

Beginning in the 6th century BC with the ^{[17]} Around 300 BC, * Elements* is widely considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time.

The

During the

During the

Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B. Sevryuk, in the January 2006 issue of the * Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*, "The number of papers and books included in the

The word *mathematics* comes from *máthēma*), meaning "that which is learnt",^{[25]} "what one gets to know", hence also "study" and "science". The word for "mathematics" came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study" even in Classical times.^{[26]} Its adjective is μαθηματικός (*mathēmatikós*), meaning "related to learning" or "studious", which likewise further came to mean "mathematical". In particular, μαθηματικὴ τέχνη (*mathēmatikḗ tékhnē*), *ars mathematica*, meant "the mathematical art".

Similarly, one of the two main schools of thought in *mathēmatikoi* (μαθηματικοί)—which at the time meant "teachers" rather than "mathematicians" in the modern sense.

In Latin, and in English until around 1700, the term *mathematics* more commonly meant "astrology" (or sometimes "astronomy") rather than "mathematics"; the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800. This has resulted in several mistranslations. For example, *mathematici*, meaning astrologers, is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of mathematicians.^{[27]}

The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form *les mathématiques* (and the less commonly used singular derivative *la mathématique*), goes back to the Latin neuter plural *mathematica* (*ta mathēmatiká*), used by *mathematic(al)* and formed the noun *mathematics* anew, after the pattern of * physics* and