National Anthem of Chile

Himno Nacional de Chile
English: National Anthem of Chile
Himno Nacional de Chile en Fa mayor Piano.png
"National Anthem of Chile" sheet music, opening piano.

National anthem of  Chile
Also known asCanción Nacional (English: National Song)
Puro, Chile, es tu cielo azulado (English: How pure, Chile, is your blue sky)
LyricsEusebio Lillo,
  • 20 September 1819 (1st adopted)
  • 17 September 1847 (2nd adopted)
MusicRamón Carnicer,
  • 20 August 1820 (1st adopted)
  • 23 December 1828 (2nd adopted)
Adopted23 December 1828
Preceded by"National Song"
Audio sample
"Himno Nacional de Chile" (instrumental)

The "National Anthem of Chile" (Spanish: Himno Nacional de Chile, pronounced [ˈimno nasjoˈnal de ˈtʃile]), also known as Canción Nacional ([kanˈsjon nasjoˈnal]; transl.  'National Song') or by its incipit Puro, Chile, es tu cielo azulado ('How pure, Chile, is your blue sky'), was adopted in 1828. It has a history of two lyrics and two melodies that made up three different versions. The current version was composed by Ramón Carnicer, with words by Eusebio Lillo, and has six parts plus the chorus.

History

First national anthem

The first Chilean national anthem dates back to 1809, when the government called for, on the 13th of January, the creation of music and lyrics for this purpose.

The composer Manuel Robles and the poet Bernardo de Vera y Pintado fulfilled this mandate and their "National Song" debuted on 20 August 1820 in the Domingo Arteaga theater, although other historians claim that it was played and sung during the festivities of September 1819.

In the beginning, everyone would stand for the song. The custom of always singing it at the theater slowly disappeared, until it was requested that it only be sung at the anniversary of the country.

The doctor Bernardo Vera, known in the history of the independence, was the author of the verses that were sung to Robles' music.

This first hymn was sung until 1828,[1][2] when it was replaced with what is sung today.

Second national anthem

The second and current Chilean national anthem was composed by the Spanish composer Ramón Carnicer, when he was exiled in England because of his liberal ideas. Mariano Egaña, Chilean Minister in London, acting on the criticism that Robles' song was receiving, asked Carnicer to compose a new hymn with Bernardo de Vera's original text.

The Spanish musician probably wrote the work by 1827, the date he returned to Barcelona, and his hymn debuted in Santiago, in the Arteaga theater, 23 December 1828.

Years later, in 1847, the Chilean government entrusted the young poet Eusebio Lillo with a new text that would replace the anti-Spain poem of Vera y Pintado, and after being analyzed by Andrés Bello, retained the original chorus ("Dulce patria, recibe los votos..."). The lyrics were slightly revised in 1909.

During the military government (1973–1990) of Augusto Pinochet, the Verse III was officially incorporated because of his praise of the armed forces and the national police (Carabiners). After the end of Pinochet's regime, in 1990, it was only sung in military events. Supporters from the former military regime also sing the anthem with the Verse III in private ceremonies and rallies.

In the celebrations marking the return of democracy in March 1990 at Santiago's Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos, the anthem was played in its present melody, raised to F Major (the Royal Musical Official Version of the anthem) which is the original melody of the second anthem by Carnicer, but using the 1847 lyrics as text, save for the original chorus of the 1819 anthem. This was the version that from 1991 to 2013 was played during sign-on and sign-off broadcasts of Chilean television stations. Now the anthem is played in C Major during sign-on and sign-off.

Joe Walsh, famed musician who was part of the United States rock band the Eagles, sang the National Anthem of Chile at a Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim baseball game in 2003.