Netherlands

  • netherlands

    nederland  (dutch)
    flag of netherlands
    flag
    coat of arms of netherlands
    coat of arms
    motto: 
    "je maintiendrai"  (french)
    "i will maintain"
    anthem: 
    "wilhelmus van nassouwe"  (dutch)
    "william of nassau"


    location of the netherlands (dark green) – in europe (green & dark grey) – in the european union (green)
    location of the netherlands (dark green)

    – in europe (green & dark grey)
    – in the european union (green)

    location of the caribbean municipalities (green)
    location of the caribbean municipalities (green)
    capital
    and largest city
    amsterdam[a]
    52°22′n 4°53′e / 52°22′n 4°53′e / 52.367; 4.883
    government seatthe hague[a]
    official languagesdutch[1]
    regional
    english, papiamento, west frisian[b]
    recognised
    dutch low saxon, limburgish[b]
    ethnic groups
    (2017[4])
    • 77.39% dutch
    • 9.88% other europeans
    • 2.34% turks
    • 2.29% moroccans
    • 2.13% moluccans and other indonesians
    • 2.05% surinamese
    • 0.90% dutch caribbeans
    • 0.23% other americans
    • 2.80% other
    religion
    (2017[5])
    • 51% non-religious
    • 24% catholic church
    • 15% protestant church
    • 5% islam
    • 6% other
    demonym(s)dutch
    sovereign statekingdom of the netherlands
    governmentunitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    • monarch
    willem-alexander
    • prime minister
    mark rutte
    • deputy prime ministers
    • hugo de jonge
    • kajsa ollongren
    • carola schouten
    • vice president of the council of state
    thom de graaf
    legislaturestates general
    • upper house
    senate
    • lower house
    house of representatives
    independence from habsburg spain
    • proclaimed
    26 july 1581
    • recognised
    30 january 1648
    • kingdom established
    16 march 1815
    • liberation day
    5 may 1945
    • un admission
    10 december 1945
    • charter
    15 december 1954
    • caribbean incorporation
    10 october 2010
    area
    • total
    41,873[6] km2 (16,167 sq mi) (131st)
    • water (%)
    19.26
    population
    • 1 november 2019 estimate
    17,424,978 increase[7] (64th)
    • density
    521/km2 (1,349.4/sq mi) (12th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    $1.004 trillion[8] (28th)
    • per capita
    $58,255[8] (13th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    $914 billion[8] (17th)
    • per capita
    $53,016[8] (13th)
    gini (2018)negative increase 27.4[9]
    low · 15th
    hdi (2019)increase 0.933[10]
    very high · 10th
    currencyeuro; us dollar[c]
    time zone
    • utc+1 (cet)
    • utc−4 (ast)[d]
    • summer (dst)
    • utc+2 (cest)
    • utc−4 (ast)
    note: although netherlands is located in western european time/utc (z) zone, since 2 november 1942, upon ww2 german occupation, central european time/[2] with a +0:40:28 offset (+1:40:28 during dst) from amsterdam’s lmt (utc+0:19:32).
    date formatdd-mm-yyyy
    mains electricity230 v–50 hz
    driving sideright
    calling code+31; +599[e]
    iso 3166 codenl
    internet tld.nl;.eu; .bq[f]
    location of netherlands

    the netherlands (dutch: nederland, [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (about this soundlisten)), informally holland,[12] is a country in northwestern europe with some overseas territories in the caribbean. in europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border germany to the east, belgium to the south, and the north sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the north sea with those countries and the united kingdom.[13] together with the caribbean netherlandsbonaire, sint eustatius and saba—it forms a constituent country of the kingdom of the netherlands. the official language is dutch and a secondary official language in the province of friesland is west frisian. in the north and east of the country, low saxon is also spoken, and in the southeast, limburgish. in the caribbean netherlands english and papiamento are recognised languages.

    the five largest cities in the netherlands are amsterdam, rotterdam, the hague, utrecht and eindhoven.[14] amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital,[15] while the hague holds the seat of the states general, cabinet and supreme court.[16] the port of rotterdam is the busiest seaport in europe, and the busiest in any country outside asia.[17] amsterdam airport schiphol is the busiest airport in the netherlands, and the third busiest in europe. the country is a founding member of the eu, eurozone, g10, nato, oecd and wto, as well as a part of the schengen area and the trilateral benelux union. it hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in the hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.[18]

    netherlands literally means 'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 17% falling below sea level.[19] most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. with a population of 17.4 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 square kilometres (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi)—the netherlands is the 12th most densely populated country in the world and the 5th most densely populated country in europe, with a density of 521 per square kilometre (1,350/sq mi). nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the united states), owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness.[20][21][22]

    the netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. the country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. the netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. the netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom,[23] economic freedom,[24] human development and quality of life, as well as happiness.[25][g]. in 2009, the netherlands had the seventh highest economy as measured by gdp per capita. in 2013, it ranked fourth on the human development index.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • politics
  • government
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Netherlands

Nederland  (Dutch)
Motto: 
"Je maintiendrai"  (French)
"I will maintain"
Anthem: 
"Wilhelmus van Nassouwe"  (Dutch)
"William of Nassau"


Location of the Netherlands (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of the Netherlands (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Location of the Caribbean municipalities (green)
Location of the Caribbean municipalities (green)
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam[a]
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367; 4.883
Government seatThe Hague[a]
Official languagesDutch[1]
Regional
English, Papiamento, West Frisian[b]
Recognised
Dutch Low Saxon, Limburgish[b]
Ethnic groups
(2017[4])
Religion
(2017[5])
Demonym(s)Dutch
Sovereign stateKingdom of the Netherlands
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Willem-Alexander
Mark Rutte
Thom de Graaf
LegislatureStates General
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Habsburg Spain
26 July 1581
30 January 1648
• Kingdom established
16 March 1815
5 May 1945
10 December 1945
• Charter
15 December 1954
10 October 2010
Area
• Total
41,873[6] km2 (16,167 sq mi) (131st)
• Water (%)
19.26
Population
• 1 November 2019 estimate
17,424,978 Increase[7] (64th)
• Density
521/km2 (1,349.4/sq mi) (12th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.004 trillion[8] (28th)
• Per capita
$58,255[8] (13th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$914 billion[8] (17th)
• Per capita
$53,016[8] (13th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 27.4[9]
low · 15th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.933[10]
very high · 10th
CurrencyEuro; US dollar[c]
Time zone
• Summer (DST)
Note: Although Netherlands is located in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 2 November 1942, upon WW2 German occupation, Central European Time/[2] with a +0:40:28 offset (+1:40:28 during DST) from Amsterdam’s LMT (UTC+0:19:32).
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+31; +599[e]
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD.nl;.eu; .bq[f]
Location of Netherlands

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland, [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (About this soundlisten)), informally Holland,[12] is a country in Northwestern Europe with some overseas territories in the Caribbean. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom.[13] Together with the Caribbean NetherlandsBonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch and a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. In the north and east of the country, Low Saxon is also spoken, and in the southeast, Limburgish. In the Caribbean Netherlands English and Papiamento are recognised languages.

The five largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Eindhoven.[14] Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital,[15] while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court.[16] The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe, and the busiest in any country outside Asia.[17] Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.[18]

Netherlands literally means 'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and nearly 17% falling below sea level.[19] Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 square kilometres (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi)—the Netherlands is the 12th most densely populated country in the world and the 5th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 521 per square kilometre (1,350/sq mi). Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the United States), owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness.[20][21][22]

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom,[23] economic freedom,[24] human development and quality of life, as well as happiness.[25][g]. In 2009, The Netherlands had the seventh highest economy as measured by GDP per capita. In 2013, it ranked fourth on the human development index.