Operation Product

Operatie Product
Operation Product
Part of the Indonesian National Revolution
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Militaire kolonne tijdens de eerste politionele actie TMnr 10029134.jpg
A Dutch military column during Operatie Product
Date21 July – 5 August 1947
(2 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Result

Dutch victory

  • Indonesian Republican forces continue to conduct guerrilla operations afterwards despite severe losses
Territorial
changes
  • Capture of Sumatra's economic centres and Java's ports by the Dutch
  • Indonesian Republican forces maintain control over the rural surroundings of these areas
  • Belligerents
     Indonesia Netherlands
    Commanders and leaders
    Sudirman Simon Hendrik Spoor
    Hubertus van Mook
    Strength
    ~200,000~120,000
    Part of a series on the
    Indonesia
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    Operation Product was the first of two major Dutch military offensives against areas of Java and Sumatra controlled by the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution.[1][2] It took place between 21 July and 4 August 1947. In Indonesia, the military offensive is more commonly known in history books and military records as Agresi Militer Belanda I (First Dutch Military Aggression).

    The offensive was launched in violation of the Linggadjati Agreement between the Republic and the Netherlands. The offensive resulted in the Dutch reducing Republican-held areas to smaller areas of Java and Sumatra, split by Dutch-held areas.[1]

    Background

    Following Dutch assertions that Indonesia cooperated insufficiently in the implementation of the Linggadjati Agreement, which had been ratified on 25 March 1947 by the lower chamber of the Dutch parliament. This police action was also influenced by a Dutch perception that the Republic had failed to curb the influence of Indonesian Chinese, Indonesian Indians and the rising Indonesian Communist Party.[3]

    The 100,000 inactive Dutch soldiers in Java was a significant financial burden on the Netherlands after the ravages of World War II.[4] By May 1947, the Dutch had decided they needed to directly attack the Republic to access commodities in Republican-held areas, in particular sugar in Java and oil and rubber in Sumatra. The Dutch military estimated they would need two weeks to secure Republican-held cities and six months for the whole of the Republican territory.[4] The offensive was intended to not include an attack on Yogyakarta, seat of the Republican government, due to high expected costs of fighting there.[citation needed]