Peru

  • republic of peru

    república del perú  (spanish)
    flag of peru
    flag
    coat of arms of peru
    coat of arms
    motto: 
    "firme y feliz por la unión"  (spanish)
    "firm and happy for the union"
    anthem: 
    "himno nacional del perú"  (spanish)
    "national anthem of peru"

    • march:
      "marcha de banderas"  (spanish)
      "march of flags"
    national seal
    gran sello de la república del perú.svg
    gran sello del estado  (spanish)
    great seal of the state
    per orthographic.svg
    location of peru
    capital
    and largest city
    lima
    12°2.6′s 77°1.7′w / 12°2.6′s 77°1.7′w / -12.0433; -77.0283
    official languagespanish
    co-official languages[a]
    • quechua
    • aymara
    • other indigenous languages
    ethnic groups
    (2017[b])
    religion
    (2017[c])
    demonym(s)peruvian
    governmentunitary presidential republic[1][2]
    • president
    martín vizcarra
    • vice president
    mercedes aráoz[3]
    • prime minister
    vicente zeballos
    legislaturecongress of the republic[5]
    independence 
    from the kingdom of spain
    • declared
    28 july 1821
    • consolidated
    9 december 1824
    • recognized
    14 august 1879
    area
    • total
    1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th)
    • water (%)
    0.41
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    increase 32,824,358 [6] (41st)
    • 2017 census
    31,237,385
    • density
    23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (198th)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $505.450 billion[7] (36th)
    • per capita
    increase $15,399[7] (85th)
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $240.175 billion[7] (41st)
    • per capita
    increase $7,317[7] (80th)
    gini (2017)positive decrease 43.3[8]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.759[9]
    high · 82th
    currencysol (pen)
    time zoneutc−5 (pet)
    date formatdd.mm.yyyy (ce)
    driving sideright
    calling code+51
    iso 3166 codepe
    internet tld.pe

    peru (/ (about this soundlisten); spanish: perú [peˈɾu]; quechua: piruw republika [pʰɪɾʊw];[10] aymara: piruw suyu [pɪɾʊw]), officially the republic of peru (spanish: about this soundrepública del perú ), is a country in western south america. it is bordered in the north by ecuador and colombia, in the east by brazil, in the southeast by bolivia, in the south by chile, and in the west by the pacific ocean. peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical amazon basin rainforest in the east with the amazon river.[11] at 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2), peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in south america.

    peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. ranging from the norte chico civilization starting in 3500 bc, the oldest civilization in the americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the inca empire, the largest state in pre-columbian america, the territory now including peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia bce.

    the spanish empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its south american colonies, with its capital in lima. peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of josé de san martín and simón bolívar, and the decisive battle of ayacucho, peru completed its independence in 1824. in the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the war of the pacific with chile. throughout the 20th century, peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. alberto fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing peru and successfully ending the shining path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by president pedro pablo kuczynski in 2017. even after the president's regime, fujimori's followers, called fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing pedro pablo kuczynski to resign in march 2018.

    the sovereign state of peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. it is classified as an emerging market[12] with a high level of human development[13] and an upper middle income level[14] with a poverty rate around 19 percent.[15] it is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9%[15] and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%.[16] its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology.[17] the country forms part of the pacific pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along latin america's pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. peru ranks high in social freedom;[18] it is an active member of the asia-pacific economic cooperation, the pacific alliance, the trans-pacific partnership and the world trade organization; and is considered as a middle power.[19]

    peru has a population of 32 million,[20] which includes amerindians, europeans, africans and asians. the main spoken language is spanish, although a significant number of peruvians speak quechua or other indigenous languages. this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

  • etymology
  • history
  • government and politics
  • geography
  • economy and infrastructure
  • demographics
  • toponyms
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes and references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Republic of Peru

República del Perú  (Spanish)
Motto: 
"Firme y feliz por la unión"  (Spanish)
"Firm and Happy for the Union"
Anthem: 
"Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish)
"National Anthem of Peru"

National seal
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
Gran Sello del Estado  (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State
PER orthographic.svg
Location of Peru
Capital
and largest city
Lima
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official languageSpanish
Co-official languages[a]
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Peruvian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic[1][2]
• President
Martín Vizcarra
Mercedes Aráoz[3]
Vicente Zeballos
LegislatureCongress of the Republic[5]
Independence 
• Declared
28 July 1821
9 December 1824
• Recognized
14 August 1879
Area
• Total
1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th)
• Water (%)
0.41
Population
• 2020 estimate
Increase 32,824,358 [6] (41st)
• 2017 census
31,237,385
• Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $505.450 billion[7] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,399[7] (85th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $240.175 billion[7] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $7,317[7] (80th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 43.3[8]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.759[9]
high · 82th
CurrencySol (PEN)
Time zoneUTC−5 (PET)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+51
ISO 3166 codePE
Internet TLD.pe

Peru (/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw Republika [pʰɪɾʊw];[10] Aymara: Piruw Suyu [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: About this soundRepública del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[11] At 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market[12] with a high level of human development[13] and an upper middle income level[14] with a poverty rate around 19 percent.[15] It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9%[15] and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%.[16] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology.[17] The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom;[18] it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.[19]

Peru has a population of 32 million,[20] which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.