Postcolonial theologians argue that, in the past, the dominant Western form of Christianity is actually determined, shaped, and defined by European colonialism, implying and reinforcing notions such as Eurocentrism, colonial exploitation, and the superiority of European values and culture. Therefore, critical examination is needed, and alternative interpretations to colonially-tainted narratives need to be constructed. This is done by "revisiting the question of how indigenous cultures can contribute to theology and biblical studies".
Although decolonization took place shortly after the Second World War, postcolonial theories did not emerge until the late 1970s. The field of postcolonial theology, correspondingly, did not arise until the 1990s.
Notable biblical scholars include R. S. Sugirtharajah and Fernando Segovia and theologians include Musa W. Dube, Wong Wai-ching Angela, Kwok Pui-lan, and Mayra Rivera.