Prussia

  • prussia

    preußen  (german)
    prūsija  (prussian)
    1525–1947
    flag of prussia
    flag
    (1803–1892)
    lesser arms full achievement of arms of the kingdom of prussia
    left: prussian eagle (1871–1918)
    right: full achievement (1873–1918)
    motto: gott mit uns
    nobiscum deus
    ("god with us")
    suum cuique
    ("to each his own")
    anthem: preußenlied
    ("song of prussia")
    the kingdom of prussia in 1789
    the kingdom of prussia in 1789
    the kingdom of prussia in 1870
    the kingdom of prussia in 1870
    capitalkönigsberg (1525–1701)
    berlin (1701–1947)
    common languagesgerman (official)
    religion
    religious confessions in
    the kingdom of prussia 1880

    majority:
    64.64% united protestant
    (lutheran, reformed)
    minorities:
    33.75% roman catholic
    1.33% jewish
    0.19% other christian
    0.09% other
    demonym(s)prussian
    governmentfeudal monarchy (1525–1701)
    absolute monarchy (1701–1848)
    federal parliamentary
    semi-constitutional monarchy (1848–1918)
    federal semi-presidential
    constitutional republic (1918–1930)
    authoritarian presidential republic (1930–1933)
    national socialist single-party state (1933–1945)
    duke1 
    • 1525–1568 (first)
    albert i
    • 1688–1701 (last)
    frederick iii
    king1 
    • 1701–1713 (first)
    frederick i
    • 1888–1918 (last)
    wilhelm ii
    prime minister1, 2 
    • 1918 (first)
    friedrich ebert
    • 1933–1945 (last)
    hermann göring
    historical eraearly modern europe to contemporary
    • duchy of prussia
    10 april 1525
    • union with brandenburg
    27 august 1618
    • kingdom of prussia
    18 january 1701
    • free state of prussia
    9 november 1918
    • abolition (de facto, loss of independence)
    30 january 1934
    • abolition (de jure)
    25 february 1947
    area
    1907[1]348,702 km2 (134,635 sq mi)
    1939[1]297,007 km2 (114,675 sq mi)
    population
    • 1816[1]
    10,349,000
    • 1871[1]
    24,689,000
    • 1939[1]
    41,915,040
    currencyreichsthaler (until 1750)
    prussian thaler (1750–1857)
    vereinsthaler (1857–1873)
    german gold mark (1873–1914)
    german german papiermark (1914–1923)
    reichsmark (1924–1947)
    today part ofbelgium, czech republic, denmark, germany, lithuania, netherlands, poland, russia, switzerland
    • 1 the heads of state listed here are the first and last to hold each title over time. for more information, see individual prussian state articles (links in above history section).
    • 2 the position of ministerpräsident was introduced in 1792 when prussia was a kingdom; the prime ministers shown here are the heads of the prussian republic.

    prussia (ə/; german: preußen, pronounced [ˈpʁɔʏsn̩] (about this soundlisten), old prussian: prūsa or prūsija) was a historically prominent german state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centered on the region of prussia on the southeast coast of the baltic sea. it was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the prussian government to german chancellor franz von papen in 1932 and de jure by an allied decree in 1947. for centuries, the house of hohenzollern ruled prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. prussia, with its capital first in königsberg and then, in 1701, in berlin, decisively shaped the history of germany.

    in 1871, most german states (notably excluding austria and switzerland) united to create the german empire under prussian leadership. in november 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the german revolution of 1918–19. the kingdom of prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the free state of prussia, a state of germany from 1918 until 1933. from 1933, prussia lost its independence as a result of the prussian coup, when the nazi regime was successfully establishing its gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. with the end of the nazi regime, in 1945, the division of germany into allied occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the oder–neisse line, which were incorporated into poland and the soviet union, the state of prussia ceased to exist de facto.[2][3] prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the allied control council enactment no. 46 of 25 february 1947.[4]

    the name prussia derives from the old prussians; in the 13th century, the teutonic knights—an organized catholic medieval military order of german crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them. in 1308, the teutonic knights conquered the region of pomerelia with gdańsk (danzig). their monastic state was mostly germanised through immigration from central and western germany, and, in the south, it was polonised by settlers from masovia. the second peace of thorn (1466) split prussia into the western royal prussia, a province of poland, and the eastern part, from 1525 called the duchy of prussia, a fief of the crown of poland up to 1657. the union of brandenburg and the duchy of prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the kingdom of prussia in 1701.

    prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom,[5][6][7][8] and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. during the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of frederick the great. during the 19th century prussian chancellor otto von bismarck united the german principalities into a "lesser germany", which excluded the austrian empire.

    at the congress of vienna (1814–15), which redrew the map of europe following napoleon's defeat, prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich ruhr. the country then grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the north german confederation in 1867, and then of the german empire in 1871. the kingdom of prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new germany that junkers and other prussian élites identified more and more as germans and less as prussians.

    the kingdom ended in 1918 along with other german monarchies that collapsed as a result of the german revolution. in the weimar republic, the free state of prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by franz von papen. subsequently, it was effectively dismantled into nazi german gaue in 1935. nevertheless, some prussian ministries were kept and hermann göring remained in his role as minister president of prussia until the end of world war ii. former eastern territories of germany that made up a significant part of prussia lost the majority of their german population after 1945 as the people's republic of poland and the soviet union both absorbed these territories and had most of its german inhabitants expelled by 1950. prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the allies, was officially abolished by an allied declaration in 1947. the international status of the former eastern territories of germany was disputed until the treaty on the final settlement with respect to germany in 1990, while its return to germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the federation of expellees and various political revisionists.

    the term prussian has often been used, especially outside germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness, militarism and conservatism of the junker class of landed aristocrats in the east who dominated first prussia and then the german empire.

  • symbols
  • territory
  • history
  • administrative and constitutional frameworks
  • demographics
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Prussia

Preußen  (German)
Prūsija  (Prussian)
1525–1947
Flag of Prussia
Flag
(1803–1892)
Lesser arms Full achievement of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia
Left: Prussian eagle (1871–1918)
Right: Full achievement (1873–1918)
Motto: Gott mit uns
Nobiscum deus
("God with us")
Suum cuique
("To each his own")
Anthem: Preußenlied
("Song of Prussia")
The Kingdom of Prussia in 1789
The Kingdom of Prussia in 1789
The Kingdom of Prussia in 1870
The Kingdom of Prussia in 1870
CapitalKönigsberg (1525–1701)
Berlin (1701–1947)
Common languagesGerman (official)
Religion
Religious confessions in
the Kingdom of Prussia 1880

Majority:
64.64% United Protestant
(Lutheran, Reformed)
Minorities:
33.75% Roman Catholic
1.33% Jewish
0.19% Other Christian
0.09% Other
Demonym(s)Prussian
GovernmentFeudal monarchy (1525–1701)
Absolute monarchy (1701–1848)
Federal parliamentary
semi-constitutional monarchy (1848–1918)
Federal semi-presidential
constitutional republic (1918–1930)
Authoritarian presidential republic (1930–1933)
National Socialist single-party state (1933–1945)
Duke1 
• 1525–1568 (first)
Albert I
• 1688–1701 (last)
Frederick III
King1 
• 1701–1713 (first)
Frederick I
• 1888–1918 (last)
Wilhelm II
Prime Minister1, 2 
• 1918 (first)
Friedrich Ebert
• 1933–1945 (last)
Hermann Göring
Historical eraEarly modern Europe to Contemporary
10 April 1525
27 August 1618
18 January 1701
9 November 1918
• Abolition (de facto, loss of independence)
30 January 1934
25 February 1947
Area
1907[1]348,702 km2 (134,635 sq mi)
1939[1]297,007 km2 (114,675 sq mi)
Population
• 1816[1]
10,349,000
• 1871[1]
24,689,000
• 1939[1]
41,915,040
CurrencyReichsthaler (until 1750)
Prussian thaler (1750–1857)
Vereinsthaler (1857–1873)
German gold mark (1873–1914)
German German Papiermark (1914–1923)
Reichsmark (1924–1947)
Today part ofBelgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Switzerland
  • 1 The heads of state listed here are the first and last to hold each title over time. For more information, see individual Prussian state articles (links in above History section).
  • 2 The position of Ministerpräsident was introduced in 1792 when Prussia was a Kingdom; the prime ministers shown here are the heads of the Prussian republic.

Prussia (ə/; German: Preußen, pronounced [ˈpʁɔʏsn̩] (About this soundlisten), Old Prussian: Prūsa or Prūsija) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centered on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital first in Königsberg and then, in 1701, in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

In 1871, most German states (notably excluding Austria and Switzerland) united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into Allied occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto.[2][3] Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947.[4]

The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians; in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk (Danzig). Their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom,[5][6][7][8] and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire.

At the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr. The country then grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and then of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians.

The Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was effectively dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935. Nevertheless, some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was officially abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947. The international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists.

The term Prussian has often been used, especially outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness, militarism and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and then the German Empire.