Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré officiel (cropped).jpg
President of France
In office
18 February 1913 – 18 February 1920
Prime MinisterAristide Briand
Louis Barthou
Gaston Doumergue
Alexandre Ribot
Paul Painlevé
Georges Clemenceau
Alexandre Millerand
Preceded byArmand Fallières
Succeeded byPaul Deschanel
Prime Minister of France
In office
23 July 1926 – 29 July 1929
PresidentGaston Doumergue
Preceded byÉdouard Herriot
Succeeded byAristide Briand
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
PresidentAlexandre Millerand
Preceded byAristide Briand
Succeeded byFrédéric François-Marsal
In office
21 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
PresidentArmand Fallières
Preceded byJoseph Caillaux
Succeeded byAristide Briand
Minister of Finance
In office
23 July 1926 – 11 November 1928
Preceded byAnatole de Monzie
Succeeded byHenry Chéron
In office
14 March 1906 – 25 October 1906
Prime MinisterFerdinand Sarrien
Preceded byPierre Merlou
Succeeded byJoseph Caillaux
In office
30 May 1894 – 26 January 1895
Prime MinisterCharles Dupuy
Preceded byAuguste Burdeau
Succeeded byAlexandre Ribot
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
Preceded byAristide Briand
Succeeded byEdmond Lefebvre du Prey
In office
14 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
Preceded byJustin de Selves
Succeeded byCharles Jonnart
Minister of Education
In office
26 January 1895 – 1 November 1895
Prime MinisterAlexandre Ribot
Preceded byGeorges Leygues
Succeeded byÉmile Combes
In office
4 April 1893 – 3 December 1893
Prime MinisterCharles Dupuy
Preceded byCharles Dupuy
Succeeded byEugène Spuller
Personal details
Born
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré

(1860-08-20)20 August 1860
Bar-le-Duc, France
Died15 October 1934(1934-10-15) (aged 74)
Paris, France
Political partyDemocratic Republican Alliance
Spouse(s)
Alma materUniversity of Nantes
University of Paris

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (UK: /,[1] US: /,[2][3] French: [ʁɛmɔ̃ pwɛ̃kaʁe]; 20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.[4]

Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and serving as President of the Republic for 1913-20. He attempted to wield influence from what was normally a figurehead role, being noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, and playing an important role in encouraging Russian military mobilization during the July Crisis of 1914. From 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival Georges Clemenceau had become Prime Minister. At the Paris Peace Conference, he favoured Allied occupation of the Rhineland.

In 1922 Poincaré returned to power as Prime Minister. In 1923 he ordered the Occupation of the Ruhr to enforce payment of German reparations. By this time Poincaré was seen, especially in the English-speaking world, as an aggressive figure (Poincaré-la-Guerre) who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-German policies. His government was defeated by the Cartel des Gauches at the elections of 1924. He served a third term as Prime Minister in 1926-9.

Early years

Born in Bar-le-Duc, Meuse, France, Raymond Poincaré was the son of Nanine Marie Ficatier, who was deeply religious [5] and Nicolas Antonin Hélène Poincaré, a distinguished civil servant and meteorologist. Raymond was also the cousin of Henri Poincaré, the famous mathematician. Educated at the University of Paris, Raymond was called to the Paris Bar, and was for some time law editor of the Voltaire. He became at the age of 20 the youngest lawyer in France.[6] and was appointed Secrétaire de la Conférence du Barreau de Paris. As a lawyer, he successfully defended Jules Verne in a libel suit presented against the famous author by the chemist, Eugène Turpin, inventor of the explosive melinite, who claimed that the "mad scientist" character in Verne's book Facing the Flag was based on him.[7] At the age of 26, Poincaré was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, making him the youngest deputy in the chamber.[6]