Raymond Poincaré

  • raymond poincaré
    raymond poincaré officiel (cropped).jpg
    president of france
    in office
    18 february 1913 – 18 february 1920
    prime ministeraristide briand
    louis barthou
    gaston doumergue
    alexandre ribot
    rené viviani
    paul painlevé
    georges clemenceau
    alexandre millerand
    preceded byarmand fallières
    succeeded bypaul deschanel
    prime minister of france
    in office
    23 july 1926 – 29 july 1929
    presidentgaston doumergue
    preceded byÉdouard herriot
    succeeded byaristide briand
    in office
    15 january 1922 – 8 june 1924
    presidentalexandre millerand
    preceded byaristide briand
    succeeded byfrédéric françois-marsal
    in office
    21 january 1912 – 21 january 1913
    presidentarmand fallières
    preceded byjoseph caillaux
    succeeded byaristide briand
    minister of foreign affairs
    in office
    15 january 1922 – 8 june 1924
    preceded byaristide briand
    succeeded byedmond lefebvre du prey
    in office
    14 january 1912 – 21 january 1913
    preceded byjustin de selves
    succeeded bycharles jonnart
    minister of finance
    in office
    23 july 1926 – 11 november 1928
    preceded byanatole de monzie
    succeeded byhenry chéron
    in office
    14 march 1906 – 25 october 1906
    prime ministerferdinand sarrien
    preceded by pierre merlou
    succeeded byjoseph caillaux
    in office
    30 may 1894 – 26 january 1895
    prime ministercharles dupuy
    preceded byauguste burdeau
    succeeded byalexandre ribot
    minister of education
    in office
    26 january 1895 – 1 november 1895
    prime ministeralexandre ribot
    preceded bygeorges leygues
    succeeded byÉmile combes
    in office
    4 april 1893 – 3 december 1893
    prime ministercharles dupuy
    preceded bycharles dupuy
    succeeded byeugène spuller
    personal details
    born
    raymond nicolas landry poincaré

    (1860-08-20)20 august 1860
    bar-le-duc, france
    died15 october 1934(1934-10-15) (aged 74)
    paris, france
    political partydemocratic republican alliance
    spouse(s)
    henriette benucci (m. 1904)
    alma materuniversity of nantes
    university of paris

    raymond nicolas landry poincaré (uk: /,[1] us: /,[2][3] french: [ʁɛmɔ̃ pwɛ̃kaʁe]; 20 august 1860 – 15 october 1934) was a french statesman who served three times as 58th prime minister of france, and as president of france from 1913 to 1920. he was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.[4]

    trained in law, poincaré was elected as a deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of dupuy and ribot. in 1902, he co-founded the democratic republican alliance, the most important centre-right party under the third republic, becoming prime minister in 1912 and serving as president of the republic from 1913 to 1920. he purged the french government of all opponents and critics and single-handedly controlled french foreign policy from 1912 to the beginning of world war i. he was noted for his strongly anti-german attitudes, shifting the franco-russian alliance from the defensive to the offensive, visiting russia in 1912 and 1914 to strengthen franco-russian relations, and giving france's support for russian military mobilization during the july crisis of 1914. from 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival georges clemenceau had become prime minister. at the paris peace conference, he favoured allied occupation of the rhineland.

    in 1922 poincaré returned to power as prime minister. in 1923 he ordered the occupation of the ruhr to enforce payment of german reparations. by this time poincaré was seen, especially in the english-speaking world, as an aggressive figure (poincaré-la-guerre) who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-german policies. his government was defeated by the cartel des gauches at the elections of 1924. he served a third term as prime minister in 1926–1929.

  • early years
  • early political career
  • first premiership
  • presidency
  • second premiership
  • third premiership
  • resignation and death
  • family
  • see also
  • citations
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré officiel (cropped).jpg
President of France
In office
18 February 1913 – 18 February 1920
Prime MinisterAristide Briand
Louis Barthou
Gaston Doumergue
Alexandre Ribot
René Viviani
Paul Painlevé
Georges Clemenceau
Alexandre Millerand
Preceded byArmand Fallières
Succeeded byPaul Deschanel
Prime Minister of France
In office
23 July 1926 – 29 July 1929
PresidentGaston Doumergue
Preceded byÉdouard Herriot
Succeeded byAristide Briand
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
PresidentAlexandre Millerand
Preceded byAristide Briand
Succeeded byFrédéric François-Marsal
In office
21 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
PresidentArmand Fallières
Preceded byJoseph Caillaux
Succeeded byAristide Briand
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
Preceded byAristide Briand
Succeeded byEdmond Lefebvre du Prey
In office
14 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
Preceded byJustin de Selves
Succeeded byCharles Jonnart
Minister of Finance
In office
23 July 1926 – 11 November 1928
Preceded byAnatole de Monzie
Succeeded byHenry Chéron
In office
14 March 1906 – 25 October 1906
Prime MinisterFerdinand Sarrien
Preceded by Pierre Merlou
Succeeded byJoseph Caillaux
In office
30 May 1894 – 26 January 1895
Prime MinisterCharles Dupuy
Preceded byAuguste Burdeau
Succeeded byAlexandre Ribot
Minister of Education
In office
26 January 1895 – 1 November 1895
Prime MinisterAlexandre Ribot
Preceded byGeorges Leygues
Succeeded byÉmile Combes
In office
4 April 1893 – 3 December 1893
Prime MinisterCharles Dupuy
Preceded byCharles Dupuy
Succeeded byEugène Spuller
Personal details
Born
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré

(1860-08-20)20 August 1860
Bar-le-Duc, France
Died15 October 1934(1934-10-15) (aged 74)
Paris, France
Political partyDemocratic Republican Alliance
Spouse(s)
Alma materUniversity of Nantes
University of Paris

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (UK: /,[1] US: /,[2][3] French: [ʁɛmɔ̃ pwɛ̃kaʁe]; 20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.[4]

Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and serving as President of the Republic from 1913 to 1920. He purged the French government of all opponents and critics and single-handedly controlled French foreign policy from 1912 to the beginning of World War I. He was noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, shifting the Franco-Russian Alliance from the defensive to the offensive, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to strengthen Franco-Russian relations, and giving France's support for Russian military mobilization during the July Crisis of 1914. From 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival Georges Clemenceau had become Prime Minister. At the Paris Peace Conference, he favoured Allied occupation of the Rhineland.

In 1922 Poincaré returned to power as Prime Minister. In 1923 he ordered the Occupation of the Ruhr to enforce payment of German reparations. By this time Poincaré was seen, especially in the English-speaking world, as an aggressive figure (Poincaré-la-Guerre) who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-German policies. His government was defeated by the Cartel des Gauches at the elections of 1924. He served a third term as Prime Minister in 1926–1929.