Scots language

  • scots
    lowland scots
    (braid) scots, lallans, doric
    native tounited kingdom, ireland
    region
    • scotland: scottish lowlands, northern isles, caithness, arran and campbeltown
    • ulster (ireland): counties down, antrim, londonderry, donegal and armagh
    ethnicityscots
    native speakers
    110,000–125,000 (1999–2011)[1][citation needed]
    1.5 million l2 speakers (no date)[2]

    in the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak scots.[3]

    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • ingvaeonic
          • anglo-frisian
            • anglic
              • scots
    early forms
    old english
    • middle english
      • early scots
        • middle scots
    dialects
    • central
    • southern
    • ulster
    • northern
    • insular
    writing system
    latin
    official status
    recognised minority
    language in
    united kingdom (scotland and northern ireland), republic of ireland
    language codes
    sco
    iso 639-3sco
    scot1243[4]
    linguasphere52-aba-aa (varieties:
    52-aba-aaa to -aav)
    scotslanguagemap.png
    areas where the scots language was spoken in the 20th century[5][6]

    scots (scottish gaelic: albais) is the west germanic languages variety spoken in lowland scotland and parts of ulster in ireland (where the local dialect is known as ulster scots).[7] it is sometimes called lowland scots to distinguish it from scottish gaelic, the celtic language that was historically restricted to most of the highlands, the hebrides and galloway after the 16th century.[8] the scots language developed during the middle english period as a distinct entity.[9][10][11]

    scots is recognised as an indigenous language of scotland,[12] a regional or minority language of europe,[13] and as a vulnerable language by unesco.[14]

    as there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of scots and particularly its relationship to english.[15] although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects exist, they often render contradictory results. broad scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with scottish standard english at the other.[16] scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of english, but it has its own distinct dialects.[15] alternatively, scots is sometimes treated as a distinct germanic language, in the way that norwegian is closely linked to but distinct from danish.[15]

    in the 2011 scottish census, 1.5 million people in scotland reported being able to speak scots.[17]

  • nomenclature
  • history
  • geographic distribution
  • decline in status
  • language revitalisation
  • number of speakers
  • literature
  • orthography
  • grammar
  • phonology
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Scots
Lowland Scots
(Braid) Scots, Lallans, Doric
Native toUnited Kingdom, Ireland
Region
EthnicityScots
Native speakers
110,000–125,000 (1999–2011)[1][citation needed]
1.5 million L2 speakers (no date)[2]

In the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak Scots.[3]

Early forms
Dialects
Latin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
United Kingdom (Scotland and Northern Ireland), Republic of Ireland
Language codes
sco
ISO 639-3sco
scot1243[4]
Linguasphere52-ABA-aa (varieties:
52-ABA-aaa to -aav)
ScotsLanguageMap.png
Areas where the Scots language was spoken in the 20th century[5][6]

Scots (Scottish Gaelic: Albais) is the West Germanic languages variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).[7] It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language that was historically restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century.[8] The Scots language developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity.[9][10][11]

Scots is recognised as an indigenous language of Scotland,[12] a regional or minority language of Europe,[13] and as a vulnerable language by UNESCO.[14]

As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots and particularly its relationship to English.[15] Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects exist, they often render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other.[16] Scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, but it has its own distinct dialects.[15] Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way that Norwegian is closely linked to but distinct from Danish.[15]

In the 2011 Scottish Census, 1.5 million people in Scotland reported being able to speak Scots.[17]