Statistics and background
In 2013, Pew Research Center from the United States conducted a survey over Sinophobia, finding that China was viewed favorably in just half (19 of 38) of the nations surveyed, excluding China itself. Beijing's strongest supporters are in Asia, in Malaysia (81%) and Pakistan (81%); African nations of Kenya (78%), Senegal (77%) and Nigeria (76%); as well as Latin America, particularly in countries dependent on the Chinese market, such as Venezuela (71%), Brazil (65%) and Chile (62%). Anti-Chinese sentiment remains permanent, however, in the West and other Asian countries: only 28% of Germans and Italians and 37% of Americans view China favorably. It is in Japan where, more than anywhere else, antipathy toward China is striking. Just 5% of Japanese have a favorable opinion of China. At the same time, outright anti-China sentiment is limited. In 2013, in just 11 of the 38 nations surveyed is China actually viewed unfavorably by at least half of those surveyed. The strongest anti-China sentiment is in Japan, where 93% see the People's Republic in a negative light, including 48% of Japanese who have a very unfavorable view of China. There are also large majorities in Germany (64%), Italy (62%) and Israel (60%) who hold negative views of China. The rise in anti-China sentiment in Germany is particularly striking: from 33% disfavor in 2006 to 64% under the 2013 survey. And such unfavorable views exist despite Germany's success exporting to China.
Despite China's general appeal to the young, half or more of those people surveyed in 26 of 38 nations think that China acts unilaterally in international affairs, notably increasing tensions between China and other neighboring countries, excluding Russia, over territorial disputes. This concern about Beijing's failure to consider other countries' interests when making foreign policy decisions is particularly strong in the Asia-Pacific – in Japan (89%), South Korea (79%) and Australia (79%) – and in Europe – in Spain (85%), Italy (83%), France (83%) and Britain (82%). About half or more of those in the seven Middle Eastern nations surveyed also think China acts unilaterally. This includes 79% of Israelis, 71% of Jordanians and 68% of Turks. There is relatively less concern about this issue in the U.S. (60%). African nations – in particular strong majorities in Kenya (77%), Nigeria (70%), South Africa (67%) and Senegal (62%) – believe Beijing does consider their interests when making foreign policy decisions. Fifty-six per cent of Chinese think China should be more respected.