- by country
- conflict theory
- structural functionalism
- symbolic interactionism
- critical theory
- social change
- social constructionism
- conversation analysis
- network analysis
- race and ethnicity
- social movements
- social psychology in sociology
stages of a social movement
a social movement is a type of group action. there is no single consensus definition of a social movement. they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. in other words, they carry out, resist, or undo a social change. they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations.
social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites".
political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. for example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, range, and time frame.
modern western social movements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of literature) and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. it is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression, education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the mau mau in kenya, to oppose western colonialism. social movements have been and continue to be closely connected with democratic political systems. occasionally, social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more often they have flourished after democratization. over the past 200 years, they have become part of a popular and global expression of dissent.
modern movements often utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the u.s. and canada use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.