the southern hemisphere from above the south pole
the southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. the hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size.
the southern hemisphere is the half of earth that is south of the equator. it contains all or parts of five continents (antarctica, australia, about 90% of south america, one third of africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of asia), four oceans (indian, south atlantic, southern, and south pacific) and most of the pacific islands in oceania. its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the northern hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of earth's land.
owing to the tilt of earth's rotation relative to the sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from december to march and winter is from june to september. september 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and march 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. the south pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region.