Sudanese Revolution

Sudanese Revolution
Part of the 2018–19 Arab protests and the protests of 2019
Sudanese protestors celebrate signing of political agreement.png
Sudanese protestors celebrate the 17 August 2019 signing of the Draft Constitutional Declaration between military and civilian representatives.
Date19 December 2018 (2018-12-19) – August/September 2019
Caused by
Resulted in
Parties to the civil conflict


Lead figures
Non-centralized leadershipDec. 2018 – Apr. 2019
Omar al-Bashir
President of Sudan
Mohamed Tahir Ayala
Prime Minister
Motazz Moussa
Prime Minister
Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (Hemedti)
Head of the Rapid Support Forces
Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf
Sudanese Minister of Defense
Salah Mohammed Abdullah (Gosh)
Head of National Intelligence and Security Service
Apr. 2019 – Aug. 2019
Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (11–12 April)
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (12 April–21 August)
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
Chairman of the Sovereignty Council (21 August–present)

The Sudanese Revolution was a major shift of political power in Sudan that started with street protests throughout Sudan on 19 December 2018[26][27] and continued with sustained civil disobedience for about eight months, during which the 11 April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état deposed President Omar al-Bashir after thirty years in power, the 3 June Khartoum massacre took place under the leadership of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) that replaced al-Bashir, and in July and August 2019 the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC) signed a Political Agreement and a Draft Constitutional Declaration legally defining a planned 39-month phase of transitional state institutions and procedures to return Sudan to a civilian democracy.[16][14][15] In August and September 2019, the TMC formally transferred executive power to a mixed military–civilian collective head of state, the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, and to a civilian prime minister (Abdalla Hamdok) and a mostly civilian cabinet, while judicial power was transferred to Nemat Abdullah Khair, Sudan's first female Chief Justice.[21] This article mainly covers this eight-month period. See Terminology below for debates on the definition of the "Sudanese Revolution", which may also be interpreted to include the period during the prime ministership of Abdalla Hamdok, who promised that the transitional period would carry out "the program" of the revolution.[28]


On 19 December 2018, a series of demonstrations broke out in several Sudanese cities, due in part to rising costs of living and deterioration of economic conditions at all levels of society.[26] The protests quickly turned from demands for urgent economic reforms into demands for President Omar al-Bashir to step down.[29][30]

The violence of the government's reaction to these peaceful demonstrations sparked international concern. On 22 February 2019, al-Bashir declared a state of emergency and dissolved the national and regional governments, replacing the latter with military and intelligence-service officers.[31] On 8 March, al-Bashir announced that all of the women jailed for protesting against the government would be released.[32] On the weekend of 6–7 April, there were massive protests for the first time since the declaration of the state of emergency.[33] On 10 April, soldiers were seen shielding protesters from security forces,[34] and on 11 April, the military removed al-Bashir from power in a coup d'état.

Following al-Bashir's removal from power, street protests organized by the Sudanese Professionals Association and democratic opposition groups continued, calling on the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) to "immediately and unconditionally" step aside in favor of a civilian-led transitional government, and urging other reforms in Sudan.[35][9] Negotiations between the TMC and the civilian opposition to form a joint transition government took place during late April and in May, but stopped when the Rapid Support Forces and other TMC security forces killed 128 people,[36] raped 70[37] and injured others in the Khartoum massacre on 3 June.[10]

Opposition groups responded to the massacre and post-massacre arrests by carrying out a 3-day general strike from 9–11 June[38] and calling for sustained civil disobedience and nonviolent resistance until the TMC transfers power to a civilian government.[10][39] On 12 June the opposition agreed to stop the strike and the TMC agreed to free political prisoners.[40]

After renewed negotiations, a deal, called the Political Agreement, was agreed verbally between the TMC and the civilian protesters represented by the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) on 5 July 2019[12][41] and a written form[13] of the agreement was signed by the TMC and FFC on 17 July.[42] The TMC and FFC announced that they would share power to run Sudan via executive and legislative institutions and a judicial investigation of post-coup events, including the Khartoum massacre, until elections occur in mid-2022.[12][41] The Political Agreement was complemented by the Draft Constitutional Declaration,[14][15] which was initially signed by the FFC and the TMC on 4 August 2019[16] and signed more formally on 17 August.[16] The transition plan creates the Sovereignty Council as head of state, with a mixed civilian–military composition and leadership to be transferred from a military leader to a civilian leader 21 months after the transitional period begins, for a total 39-month transition period leading into elections.[43][44]

The TMC was dissolved and the mostly male[45] Sovereignty Council was created on 20 August 2019.[17] Abdalla Hamdok was appointed Prime Minister on 21 August 2019.[18] The Transitional Cabinet, with four female and 14 male civilian ministers and 2 male military ministers, was announced in early September.[20] A "comprehensive peace process" between the Sudanese state and armed opposition groups was scheduled to start on 1 September 2019.[15] Nemat Abdullah Khair was appointed as Sudan's first female Chief Justice on 10 October.[21] Street protests continued during the transitionary period.[46][47][48][49][50]