Syria

  • syrian arab republic

    الجمهورية العربية السورية (arabic)
    al-jumhūrīyah al-ʻarabīyah as-sūrīyah
    flag of syria
    flag
    coat of arms of syria
    coat of arms
    anthem: "حماة الديار" (arabic)
    "humat ad-diyar"
    (english: "guardians of the homeland")
    syria (orthographic projection).svg
    location of syria (green)
    syria - location map (2013) - syr - unocha.svg
    capital
    and largest city
    damascus
    33°30′n 36°18′e / 33°30′n 36°18′e / 33.500; 36.300
    official languagesarabic
    ethnic groups
    • syrian arabs
    • arameans
    • kurds
    • turkomans
    • assyrians
    • circassians
    • armenians
    • greeks
    religion
    87% islam
    10% christianity[1]
    3% druzism[2]
    demonym(s)syrian
    governmentunitary dominant-party semi-presidential ba’athist republic[3]
    • president
    bashar al-assad
    • prime minister
    imad khamis
    • vice presidents
    • farouk al-sharaa
    • najah al-attar
    • speaker of the people's council
    hammouda sabbagh
    legislaturepeople's council
    establishment
    • arab kingdom of syria
    8 march 1920
    • state of syria under french mandate
    1 december 1924
    • syrian republic
    14 may 1930
    • de jure independence
    24 october 1945
    • de facto independence
    17 april 1946
    • left the united arab republic
    28 september 1961
    • ba'ath party takes power
    8 march 1963
    • current constitution
    27 february 2012
    area
    • total
    185,180[4] km2 (71,500 sq mi) (87th)
    • water (%)
    1.1
    population
    • 2019 estimate
    decrease 17,070,135 (67th)
    • 2010 census
    21,018,834
    • density
    118.3/km2 (306.4/sq mi) (70th)
    gdp (ppp)2015 estimate
    • total
    $50.28 billion[5]
    • per capita
    $2,900[5]
    gdp (nominal)2014 estimate
    • total
    $24.6 billion[5] (167)
    • per capita
    $831[5]
    gini (2014)55.8[6]
    high
    hdi (2018)increase 0.549[7]
    low · 154th
    currencysyrian pound (syp)
    time zoneutc+2 (eet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+3 (eest)
    driving sideright
    calling code+963
    iso 3166 codesy
    internet tld.sy
    سوريا.

    syria (arabic: سوريا‎, romanizedsūriyā), officially the syrian arab republic (arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎, romanizedal-jumhūrīyah al-ʻarabīyah as-sūrīyah), is a country in western asia, bordering lebanon to the southwest, the mediterranean sea to the west, turkey to the north, iraq to the east, jordan to the south, and israel to the southwest. a country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including syrian arabs, kurds, turkemens, assyrians, armenians, circassians,[8] mandeans[9] and greeks. religious groups include sunnis, christians, alawites, druze, isma'ilis, mandeans, shiites, salafis, yazidis, and jews. arabs are the largest ethnic group, and sunnis the largest religious group.

    syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses ba'athism. it is a member of one international organization other than the united nations, the non-aligned movement; it was suspended from the arab league in november 2011[10] and the organisation of islamic cooperation,[11] and self-suspended from the union for the mediterranean.[12]

    the name "syria" historically referred to a wider region, broadly synonymous with the levant, and known in arabic as al-sham. the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium bc. aleppo and the capital city damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[13] in the islamic era, damascus was the seat of the umayyad caliphate and a provincial capital of the mamluk sultanate in egypt. the modern syrian state was established in the mid-20th century after centuries of ottoman and a brief period french mandate, and represented the largest arab state to emerge from the formerly ottoman-ruled syrian provinces. it gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 october 1945, when the republic of syria became a founding member of the united nations, an act which legally ended the former french mandate, although french troops did not leave the country until april 1946. the post-independence period was tumultuous, with many military coups and coup attempts shaking the country from 1949 to 1971. in 1958, syria entered a brief union with egypt called the united arab republic, which was terminated by the 1961 syrian coup d'état. the republic was renamed as the arab republic of syria in late 1961 after the december 1 constitutional referendum of that year, and was increasingly unstable until the 1963 ba'athist coup d'état, since which the ba'ath party has maintained its power. syria was under emergency law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens.

    bashar al-assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father hafez al-assad,[14] who was in office from 1971 to 2000. throughout his rule, syria and the ruling ba'ath party have been condemned and criticized for human rights abuses, frequent executions of citizens and political prisoners, and massive censorship.[15]

    since march 2011, syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise. as a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on syrian territory, including the syrian opposition, rojava, tahrir al-sham and islamic state of iraq and the levant. syria was ranked last on the global peace index from 2016 to 2018,[16] making it the most violent country in the world due to the war. the conflict has killed more than 570,000 people,[17] caused 7.6 million internally displaced people (july 2015 unhcr estimate) and over 5 million refugees (july 2017 registered by unhcr),[18] making population assessment difficult in recent years.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • politics and government
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  • demographics
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  • health
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Syrian Arab Republic

الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah
Anthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic)
"Humat ad-Diyar"
(English: "Guardians of the Homeland")
Syria (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Syria (green)
Syria - Location Map (2013) - SYR - UNOCHA.svg
Capital
and largest city
Damascus
33°30′N 36°18′E / 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500; 36.300
Official languagesArabic
Ethnic groups
Religion
87% Islam
10% Christianity[1]
3% Druzism[2]
Demonym(s)Syrian
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party semi-presidential Ba’athist republic[3]
• President
Bashar al-Assad
Imad Khamis
Hammouda Sabbagh
LegislaturePeople's Council
Establishment
8 March 1920
1 December 1924
14 May 1930
• De jure Independence
24 October 1945
• De facto Independence
17 April 1946
• Left the United Arab Republic
28 September 1961
8 March 1963
27 February 2012
Area
• Total
185,180[4] km2 (71,500 sq mi) (87th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2019 estimate
Decrease 17,070,135 (67th)
• 2010 census
21,018,834
• Density
118.3/km2 (306.4/sq mi) (70th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$50.28 billion[5]
• Per capita
$2,900[5]
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
• Total
$24.6 billion[5] (167)
• Per capita
$831[5]
Gini (2014)55.8[6]
high
HDI (2018)Increase 0.549[7]
low · 154th
CurrencySyrian pound (SYP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+963
ISO 3166 codeSY
Internet TLD.sy
سوريا.

Syria (Arabic: سوريا‎, romanizedSūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎, romanizedal-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Kurds, Turkemens, Assyrians, Armenians, Circassians,[8] Mandeans[9] and Greeks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Arabs are the largest ethnic group, and Sunnis the largest religious group.

Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism. It is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it was suspended from the Arab League in November 2011[10] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[11] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[12]

The name "Syria" historically referred to a wider region, broadly synonymous with the Levant, and known in Arabic as al-Sham. The modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[13] In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The modern Syrian state was established in the mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces. It gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when the Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate, although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, with many military coups and coup attempts shaking the country from 1949 to 1971. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The republic was renamed as the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after the December 1 constitutional referendum of that year, and was increasingly unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens.

Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad,[14] who was in office from 1971 to 2000. Throughout his rule, Syria and the ruling Ba'ath Party have been condemned and criticized for human rights abuses, frequent executions of citizens and political prisoners, and massive censorship.[15]

Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise. As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Rojava, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Syria was ranked last on the Global Peace Index from 2016 to 2018,[16] making it the most violent country in the world due to the war. The conflict has killed more than 570,000 people,[17] caused 7.6 million internally displaced people (July 2015 UNHCR estimate) and over 5 million refugees (July 2017 registered by UNHCR),[18] making population assessment difficult in recent years.