Transmisogyny

Transmisogyny (sometimes trans-misogyny) is the intersection of transphobia and misogyny. Transphobia is defined as "the irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against transgender people".[1] Misogyny is defined as "a hatred of women".[2] Therefore, transmisogyny includes negative attitudes, hate, and discrimination of transgender individuals who fall on the feminine side of the gender spectrum, particularly transgender women. The term was coined by Julia Serano in her 2007 book Whipping Girl and used to describe the unique discrimination faced by trans women because of "the assumption that femaleness and femininity are inferior to, and exist primarily for the benefit of, maleness and masculinity",[3][4][5] and the way that transphobia intensifies the misogyny faced by trans women (and vice versa).[3] It is said many trans women experience an additional layer of misogyny in the form of fetishization; Serano talks about how society views trans women in certain ways that sexualize them, such as them transitioning for sexual reasons, or ways where they’re seen as sexually promiscuous.[6] Transmisogyny is a central concept in transfeminism and is commonly referenced in intersectional feminist theory. That trans women's femaleness (rather than only their femininity) is a source of transmisogyny is denied by certain radical feminists, who claim that trans women are not female.[7]

Causes

Transmisogyny is generally understood to be caused by the social belief that men are superior to women. In Whipping Girl, Julia Serano writes that the existence of trans women is seen as a threat to a "male-centered gender hierarchy, where it is assumed that men are better than women and that masculinity is superior to femininity".[8] Gender theorist Judith Butler echoes this assumption, stating that the murder of transgender women is "an act of power, a way of re-asserting domination... killing establishes the killer as sovereign in the moment that he kills".[9]

Trans women are also viewed as threatening the heterosexuality of cisgender men. In media, "deceivers" such as Dil, a transgender woman from the 1992 film The Crying Game, have been observed to invoke outrage and male homophobia in an audience when their "true" maleness is unveiled.[10]

I think perhaps that if a trans woman flirts with a man who is straight, and that man feels humiliated or embarrassed (is that last word strong enough? maybe mortified), it is probably because he is identified by the trans man as someone with whom flirtation is possible, who could himself be involved with a trans woman or might himself be one. For some straight men, it may be possible to flirt back or to say, "thanks but no thanks," and for others, they reach for a gun. What accounts for those differences? I presume that the straight man who shoots the trans woman, he feels like he has been "attacked" by the flirtation. That is very crazy reasoning, but there is lots of craziness out there when it comes to gender identity and sexuality.

United States

In regard to health care, 55% of those who tried to receive coverage for transition-related surgery were denied. This can also be seen in the realm of education, where 77% of people who either are transgender or were perceived as transgender have received some form of mistreatment in schooling (K-12). The income level and poverty levels are both also 2-3x higher for transgender respondents. Discrimination has been found to be pervasive in many areas such as "housing, healthcare, employment, and education".[11]

However, due to transmisogyny, transgender women face even harsher levels of discrimination. A study on workplace experiences after people receive sex changes found that "average earnings for female-to-male transgender workers increase slightly following their gender transitions, while average earnings for male-to- female transgender workers fall by nearly one third. On top of this, the transition to female was found to accompany a loss of authority and an increase in harassment, whereas the opposite often brings authority and respect."[12] Another study confirmed that, especially amongst transgender women of color, there were increased levels of discrimination on the basis of transphobia and racism. This discrimination led to an increase in coping methods, and in turn, higher rates of depression.[13]

Ecuador

A study on discrimination of lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, transgender and intersex women in Ecuador found similar results. Transgender women "lack protection against discrimination in both law and practice." As a result, trans women have faced violence, sexual abuse, and discrimination in educational, health and workforce institutions.[14]