Transmisogyny

Transmisogyny (sometimes trans-misogyny) is the intersection of transphobia and misogyny.[1]. Transmisogyny includes negative attitudes, hate, and discrimination toward transgender individuals who fall on the feminine side of the gender spectrum, particularly trans women and transfeminine people.[2] The term was coined by Julia Serano in her 2007 book Whipping Girl. According to Serano, transmisogyny is an intersectional form of sexism, based on the interaction between oppositional and traditional sexism. She explained that traditional sexism is "the belief that maleness and masculinity are superior to femaleness and femininity", and oppositional sexism is "the belief that female and male are rigid, mutually exclusive categories".[3][4] Transmisogyny is a central concept in transfeminism and is commonly referenced in intersectional feminist theory. That trans women's femaleness (rather than only their femininity) is a source of transmisogyny is denied by certain radical feminists, who state that trans women are not female.[5]

Causes

Transmisogyny is generally understood[citation needed] to be caused by the social belief that men are superior to women. In Whipping Girl, Julia Serano writes that the existence of trans women is seen as a threat to a "male-centered gender hierarchy, where it is assumed that men are better than women and that masculinity is superior to femininity".[6] Gender theorist Judith Butler echoes this assumption, stating that the murder of transgender women is "an act of power, a way of re-asserting domination ... killing establishes the killer as sovereign in the moment that he kills".[7]

Trans women are also viewed as threatening the heterosexuality of cisgender men. In media, "deceivers" such as Dil, a transgender woman from the 1992 film The Crying Game, have been observed to evoke outrage and male homophobia in an audience when their "true" maleness is unveiled.[8]