Turkish War of Independence

  • turkish war of independence
    part of the revolutions of 1917–1923
    in the aftermath of world war i
    türk kurtuluş savaşı - kolaj.jpg
    clockwise from top left: delegation gathered in sivas congress to determine the objectives of the turkish national movement; turkish civilians carrying ammunition to the front; kuva-yi milliye infantry; turkish horse cavalry in chase; turkish army's capture of smyrna; troops in ankara's ulus square preparing to leave for the front.
    date19 may 1919 – 11 october 1922 (armistice)
    24 july 1923 (peace)
    (4 years, 2 months and 5 days)
    location
    anatolia, north mesopotamia and thrace
    result

    decisive turkish victory[3][4][5]

    • armistice of mudanya
    • treaty of lausanne
    • population exchange between greece and turkey
    • abolition of the ottoman sultanate
    • establishment of the republic of turkey
    territorial
    changes
    withdrawal of allied forces from occupied lands of turkey
    belligerents

    turkish national movement

    • ankara government
      (after 1920)
      • kuva-yi nizamiye
    • kuva-yi milliye[a]
      (until 1920)
    supported by:
    soviet russia[1]
     italy[2][b]
     greece
     france (until 1921)[c]
     armenia (in 1920)
     united kingdom[d]
     ottoman empire[e] (until 1922)
    • kuva-yi inzibatiye (in 1920)
    • royalists

    pontic rebels (1920–1923)
    armenian revenge regiment (in 1920)
    milli tribe (01.06–08.09.1920)
    koçgiri tribe (06.03–17.06.1921)
    rebels of Çerkes ethem (27.12.1920–23.01.1921)
    rebels of demirci mehmet efe (december 1920)


    georgia (in 1921)
    commanders and leaders
    mustafa kemal pasha
    fevzi pasha
    İsmet pasha
    kâzım pasha
    ali fuat pasha
    kingdom of italy carlo sforza[6][7] (diplomatic)
    kingdom of greece anastasios papoulas
    kingdom of greece georgios hatzianestis
    kingdom of greece leonidas paraskevopoulos
    kingdom of greece kimon digenis  pow)
    kingdom of greece nikolaos trikoupis  pow)
    french third republic henri gouraud
    first republic of armenia drastamat kanayan
    first republic of armenia movses silikyan
    united kingdom of great britain and ireland george milne
    ottoman empire süleyman Şefik pasha
    strength
    may 1919: 35,000[8]
    november 1920: 86,000
    (creation of regular army)[9]
    august 1922: 271,000[10][note 1]
    kingdom of greece dec. 1919: 80,000[11]
    1922: 200,000[12]-250,000[13][14]
    french third republic 60,000[15][16]
    first republic of armenia 20,000[17]
    united kingdom of great britain and ireland 30,000[18]
    ottoman empire kuva-yi inzibatiye: 7,000 (at peak)[19]
    casualties and losses
    13,000 killed[20]
    22,690 died of disease[21]
    5,362 died of wounds or other non-combat causes[21]
    35,000 wounded[20]
    7,000 prisoners[22][f]
    kingdom of greece 24,240 killed[23]
    18,095 missing
    48,880 wounded
    4,878 died outside of combat
    13,740 prisoners[23][24][note 2]
    french third republic ~7,000
    first republic of armenia 1,100+ killed[32]
    3,000+ prisoners[33]
    264,000 greek civilians killed[34]
    60,000-250,000 armenian civilians killed[35][36]
    15,000+ turkish civilians killed in the western front[37]
    30,000+ buildings and 250+ villages burnt to the ground by the greek military, civilian greek and armenians.[38][39][40][41][42]
    notes
    • ^ a. kuva-yi milliye came under command of the grand national assembly after 4 september 1920.
    • ^ b. italy occupied constantinople and a part of southwestern anatolia but never fought the turkish army directly. during its occupation italian troops protected turkish civilians, who were living in the areas occupied by the italian army, from greek troops and accepted turkish refugees who had to flee from the regions invaded by the greek army.[43] in july 1921 italy began to withdraw its troops from southwestern anatolia.
    • ^ c. the treaty of ankara was signed in 1921 and the franco-turkish war thus ended. the french troops remained in constantinople with the other allied troops.
    • ^ d. the united kingdom occupied constantinople, then fought against directly turkish irregular forces in the battle of izmit with the greek troops.[44][45][46][47] moreover the british troops occupied several towns in turkey.[48] for example, naval landing forces had tried to capture mudanya as early as 25 june 1920, but stubborn turkish resistance inflicted casualties on british forces and forced them to withdraw. there were many instances of successful delaying operations of small turkish irregular forces against numerical superior enemy troops.[49] and the british troops fought against the turkish army in the battle of derbent (31 august 1922). the united kingdom, which also fought diplomatically against the turkish national movement, came to the brink of a great war in september 1922 (chanak crisis).
    • ^ e. the ottoman controlled kuva-yi inzibatiye ("caliphate army") fought the turkish revolutionaries during the battle of izmit and the ottoman government in constantinople supported other revolts (e.g. anzavur).
    • ^ f. greece took 22,071 military and civilian prisoners. of these were 520 officers and 6,002 soldiers. during the prisoner exchange in 1923, 329 officers, 6,002 soldiers and 9,410 civilian prisoners arrived in turkey. the remaining 6,330, mostly civilian prisoners, presumably died in greek captivity.[22]

    the turkish war of independence (turkish: kurtuluş savaşı "war of liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl harbi "independence war" or millî mücadele "national campaign"; 19 may 1919 – 24 july 1923) was fought between the turkish national movement and the proxies of the allies – namely greece on the western front, armenia on the eastern, france on the southern, the royalists and the separatists in various cities, and with them, the united kingdom and italy in constantinople (now istanbul) – after parts of the ottoman empire were occupied and partitioned following the ottomans' defeat in world war i.[50][51][52] few of the occupying british, french, and italian troops were deployed or engaged in combat.

    the turkish national movement (kuva-yi milliye) in anatolia culminated in the formation of a new grand national assembly (gna; turkish: bmm) by mustafa kemal atatürk and his colleagues. after the end of the turkish–armenian, franco-turkish, greco-turkish fronts (often referred to as the eastern front, the southern front, and the western front of the war, respectively), the treaty of sèvres was abandoned and the treaties of kars (october 1921) and lausanne (july 1923) were signed. the allies left anatolia and eastern thrace, and the grand national assembly of turkey decided on the establishment of a republic of turkey, which was declared on 29 october 1923.

    with the establishment of the turkish national movement, the partitioning of the ottoman empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the ottoman era and the empire came to an end, and with atatürk's reforms, the turks created the modern, secular nation-state of turkey on the political front. on 3 march 1924, the ottoman caliphate was officially abolished and the last caliph was exiled.

  • prelude: 30 october 1918 – may 1919
  • initial organization
  • jurisdictional conflict
  • conflicts
  • peace negotiations
  • see also
  • footnotes
  • references
  • bibliography

Turkish War of Independence
Part of the Revolutions of 1917–1923
in the aftermath of World War I
Türk Kurtuluş Savaşı - kolaj.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Delegation gathered in Sivas Congress to determine the objectives of the Turkish National Movement; Turkish civilians carrying ammunition to the front; Kuva-yi Milliye infantry; Turkish horse cavalry in chase; Turkish Army's capture of Smyrna; troops in Ankara's Ulus Square preparing to leave for the front.
Date19 May 1919 – 11 October 1922 (Armistice)
24 July 1923 (Peace)
(4 years, 2 months and 5 days)
Location
Result

Decisive Turkish victory[3][4][5]

Territorial
changes
Withdrawal of Allied forces from occupied lands of Turkey
Belligerents

Turkish National Movement

Supported by:
Soviet Russia[1]
 Italy[2][b]
 Greece
 France (until 1921)[c]
 Armenia (in 1920)
 United Kingdom[d]
 Ottoman Empire[e] (until 1922)

Pontic rebels (1920–1923)
Armenian Revenge Regiment (in 1920)
Milli tribe (01.06–08.09.1920)
Koçgiri tribe (06.03–17.06.1921)
Rebels of Çerkes Ethem (27.12.1920–23.01.1921)
Rebels of Demirci Mehmet Efe (December 1920)


Georgia (in 1921)
Commanders and leaders
Mustafa Kemal Pasha
Fevzi Pasha
İsmet Pasha
Kâzım Pasha
Ali Fuat Pasha
Kingdom of Italy Carlo Sforza[6][7] (diplomatic)
Kingdom of Greece Anastasios Papoulas
Kingdom of Greece Georgios Hatzianestis
Kingdom of Greece Leonidas Paraskevopoulos
Kingdom of Greece Kimon Digenis  POW)
Kingdom of Greece Nikolaos Trikoupis  POW)
French Third Republic Henri Gouraud
First Republic of Armenia Drastamat Kanayan
First Republic of Armenia Movses Silikyan
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland George Milne
Ottoman Empire Süleyman Şefik Pasha
Strength
May 1919: 35,000[8]
November 1920: 86,000
(creation of regular army)[9]
August 1922: 271,000[10][note 1]
Kingdom of Greece Dec. 1919: 80,000[11]
1922: 200,000[12]-250,000[13][14]
French Third Republic 60,000[15][16]
First Republic of Armenia 20,000[17]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 30,000[18]
Ottoman Empire Kuva-yi Inzibatiye: 7,000 (at peak)[19]
Casualties and losses
13,000 killed[20]
22,690 died of disease[21]
5,362 died of wounds or other non-combat causes[21]
35,000 wounded[20]
7,000 prisoners[22][f]
Kingdom of Greece 24,240 killed[23]
18,095 missing
48,880 wounded
4,878 died outside of combat
13,740 prisoners[23][24][note 2]
French Third Republic ~7,000
First Republic of Armenia 1,100+ killed[32]
3,000+ prisoners[33]
264,000 Greek civilians killed[34]
60,000-250,000 Armenian civilians killed[35][36]
15,000+ Turkish civilians killed in the Western Front[37]
30,000+ buildings and 250+ villages burnt to the ground by the Greek military, civilian Greek and Armenians.[38][39][40][41][42]
Notes
  • ^ a. Kuva-yi Milliye came under command of the Grand National Assembly after 4 September 1920.
  • ^ b. Italy occupied Constantinople and a part of southwestern Anatolia but never fought the Turkish Army directly. During its occupation Italian troops protected Turkish civilians, who were living in the areas occupied by the Italian army, from Greek troops and accepted Turkish refugees who had to flee from the regions invaded by the Greek army.[43] In July 1921 Italy began to withdraw its troops from southwestern Anatolia.
  • ^ c. The Treaty of Ankara was signed in 1921 and the Franco-Turkish War thus ended. The French troops remained in Constantinople with the other Allied troops.
  • ^ d. The United Kingdom occupied Constantinople, then fought against directly Turkish irregular forces in the Battle of Izmit with the Greek troops.[44][45][46][47] Moreover the British troops occupied several towns in Turkey.[48] For example, naval landing forces had tried to capture Mudanya as early as 25 June 1920, but stubborn Turkish resistance inflicted casualties on British forces and forced them to withdraw. There were many instances of successful delaying operations of small Turkish irregular forces against numerical superior enemy troops.[49] And the British troops fought against the Turkish Army in the Battle of Derbent (31 August 1922). The United Kingdom, which also fought diplomatically against the Turkish National Movement, came to the brink of a great war in September 1922 (Chanak Crisis).
  • ^ e. The Ottoman controlled Kuva-yi Inzibatiye ("Caliphate Army") fought the Turkish revolutionaries during the Battle of Izmit and the Ottoman government in Constantinople supported other revolts (e.g. Anzavur).
  • ^ f. Greece took 22,071 military and civilian prisoners. Of these were 520 officers and 6,002 soldiers. During the prisoner exchange in 1923, 329 officers, 6,002 soldiers and 9,410 civilian prisoners arrived in Turkey. The remaining 6,330, mostly civilian prisoners, presumably died in Greek captivity.[22]

The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western Front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern, the royalists and the separatists in various cities, and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I.[50][51][52] Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops were deployed or engaged in combat.

The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; Turkish: BMM) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. After the end of the Turkish–Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish fronts (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of the war, respectively), the Treaty of Sèvres was abandoned and the Treaties of Kars (October 1921) and Lausanne (July 1923) were signed. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided on the establishment of a Republic of Turkey, which was declared on 29 October 1923.

With the establishment of the Turkish National Movement, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the Ottoman era and the Empire came to an end, and with Atatürk's reforms, the Turks created the modern, secular nation-state of Turkey on the political front. On 3 March 1924, the Ottoman caliphate was officially abolished and the last Caliph was exiled.