Ukraine

  • ukraine

    • Україна (ukrainian)
    • ukrayina
    flag of ukraine
    flag
    coat of arms of ukraine
    coat of arms
    anthem: 
    "shche ne vmerla ukrayiny
    ni slava, ni volya
    "

    (english: "the glory and the will of ukraine have not yet died")[a]
    europe-ukraine (orthographic projection; disputed territory).svg
    europe-ukraine (disputed territories, 2).jpg
    • location of ukraine (green)
    • annexed by russia and offensive by donetsk (light green)
    capital
    and largest city
    kiev
    49°n 32°e / 49°n 32°e / 49; 32 constitutional republic
    • president
    volodymyr zelensky
    • prime minister
    oleksiy honcharuk
    • chairman of parliament
    dmytro razumkov
    legislatureverkhovna rada
    establishment history
    • kievan rus'
    established
    882
    • christianization
    of kiev by vladimir the great
    988
    • kingdom of
    ruthenia
    1199
    • mongol invasion of kievan rus'
    1238–1240
    • establishment of the grand duchy of lithuania, ruthenia, and samogitia
    1320–1349
    • statutes of the grand duchy of lithuania, ruthenia, and samogitia
    1529
    • cossack
    hetmanate
    18 (8) august 1649
    • partition
    between poland and muscovy
    9 (30 january) february 1667
    • autonomous ukrainian people's republic
    within russia
    23 (10) june 1917
    • independence
    proclaimed
    22 (9) january 1918
    • west upr proclaimed as the successor state
    of austria-hungary
    1 november 1918[2]
    • unification of ukraine
    (west upr and upr)
    22 january 1919
    • soviet rule
    established
    10 march 1919
    • partition between
    poland and russia
    18 march 1921
    • member of the
    soviet union
    30 december 1922
    • czechoslovakian
    (carpatho-ukraine) autonomy
    30 december 1938
    • soviet annexation
    of western ukraine
    15 november 1939
    • independence
    proclaimed
    30 june 1941
    • declaration of
    state sovereignty
    16 july 1990
    • independence from
    the soviet union
    24 august 1991a
    area
    • total
    603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
    • water (%)
    7
    population
    • 2019 estimate
    decrease 42,030,832[3]
    (excluding crimea and sevastopol) (33rd)
    • 2001 census
    48,457,102[1]
    • density
    73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $408.040 billion[4] (47th)
    • per capita
    increase $9,743[4] (111th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $134.887 billion[4] (57th)
    • per capita
    increase $3,220[4] (128th)
    gini (2016)positive decrease 25.0[5]
    low · 18th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.750[6]
    high · 88th
    currencyukrainian hryvnia (₴) (uah)
    time zoneutc+2[7] (eet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+03 (eest)
    driving sideright
    calling code+380
    iso 3166 codeua
    internet tld
    • .ua
    • .укр
    1. an independence referendum was held on 1 december, after which ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 december.

    ukraine (ukrainian: Україна, romanizedukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (about this soundlisten)) is a country in eastern europe.[8] it is bordered by russia to the north-east; belarus to the north; poland, slovakia and hungary to the west; and romania, moldova, and the black sea to the south. ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with russia over the crimean peninsula, which russia annexed in 2014.[9] including crimea, ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[10] making it both the largest country entirely within europe and the 46th largest country in the world. excluding crimea, ukraine has a population of about 42 million,[3] making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. its capital and largest city is kiev. ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is cyrillic. the dominant religion in the country is eastern orthodoxy.

    the territory of modern ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 bc. during the middle ages, the area was a key centre of east slavic culture, with the powerful state of kievan rus' forming the basis of ukrainian identity. following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the polish–lithuanian commonwealth, austria-hungary, the ottoman empire and russia. a cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between poland and the russian empire. after world war ii the western part of ukraine merged into the ukrainian soviet socialist republic, and the whole country became a part of the soviet union as a single state entity. in 1991, ukraine gained its independence from the soviet union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the cold war. before its independence, ukraine was typically referred to in english as "the ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of ukraine in all uses.[11]

    following its independence, ukraine declared itself a neutral state;[12] it formed a limited military partnership with russia and other cis countries while also establishing a partnership with nato in 1994. in 2013, after the government of president viktor yanukovych had decided to suspend the ukraine-european union association agreement and seek closer economic ties with russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of yanukovych and the establishment of a new government. these events formed the background for the annexation of crimea by russia in march 2014, and the war in donbass in april 2014. on 1 january 2016, ukraine applied the economic component of the deep and comprehensive free trade area with the european union.[13]

    ukraine is a developing country and ranks 88th on the human development index. as of 2018, ukraine is the poorest country in europe alongside moldova in terms of gdp per capita. at us$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world,[note 1][14] and suffers from a very high poverty rate as well as severe corruption.[15] however, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters.[16][17] it also maintains the second-largest military in europe after that of russia. ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. the country is a member of the united nations, the council of europe, the organization for security and co-operation in europe (osce), the guam organization, and one of the founding states of the commonwealth of independent states (cis).

  • etymology and orthography
  • history
  • geography
  • politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • print sources
  • external links

Ukraine

Anthem: 
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny
ni slava, ni volya
"

(English: "The Glory and the Will of Ukraine Have Not Yet Died")[a]
Europe-Ukraine (orthographic projection; disputed territory).svg
Europe-Ukraine (disputed territories, 2).jpg
Capital
and largest city
Kiev
49°N 32°E / 49°N 32°E / 49; 32 constitutional republic
• President
Volodymyr Zelensky
Oleksiy Honcharuk
Dmytro Razumkov
LegislatureVerkhovna Rada
Establishment history
• Kievan Rus'
established
882
988
1199
1238–1240
1320–1349
1529
18 (8) August 1649
• Partition
between Poland and Muscovy
9 (30 January) February 1667
• Autonomous Ukrainian People's Republic
within Russia
23 (10) June 1917
• Independence
proclaimed
22 (9) January 1918
• West UPR proclaimed as the successor state
of Austria-Hungary
1 November 1918[2]
• Unification of Ukraine
(West UPR and UPR)
22 January 1919
• Soviet rule
established
10 March 1919
• Partition between
Poland and Russia
18 March 1921
• Member of the
Soviet Union
30 December 1922
30 December 1938
15 November 1939
30 June 1941
16 July 1990
• Independence from
the Soviet Union
24 August 1991a
Area
• Total
603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
• Water (%)
7
Population
• 2019 estimate
Decrease 42,030,832[3]
(excluding Crimea and Sevastopol) (33rd)
• 2001 census
48,457,102[1]
• Density
73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $408.040 billion[4] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,743[4] (111th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $134.887 billion[4] (57th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,220[4] (128th)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 25.0[5]
low · 18th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.750[6]
high · 88th
CurrencyUkrainian hryvnia (₴) (UAH)
Time zoneUTC+2[7] (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+03 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD
  1. An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanizedUkrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (About this soundlisten)) is a country in Eastern Europe.[8] It is bordered by Russia to the north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014.[9] Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[10] making it both the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million,[3] making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy.

The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empire. After World War II the Western part of Ukraine merged into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the whole country became a part of the Soviet Union as a single state entity. In 1991, Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses.[11]

Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state;[12] it formed a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government. These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.[13]

Ukraine is a developing country and ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine is the poorest country in Europe alongside Moldova in terms of GDP per capita. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world,[note 1][14] and suffers from a very high poverty rate as well as severe corruption.[15] However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters.[16][17] It also maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM organization, and one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).